- Purpose: Technical
- Berry color: black, with thick peuine
- Taste: harmonious, with a weak nutmeg aroma
- With bones: Yes
- Ripening time (filter): Medium Power
- Ripening time, days: 137-149
- Frost resistance, ° C: -18
- Synonyms names: Cayaba, Red Frontignansky, Cagliament Muscat, Muscat Cagliabansky, Moskato Nehru, Muscat and Pl Gran Noir, Rother Frontignan, Fiete Mushkay
- Weight bunchy, g: 75-90
- Yield: 40-100 c / ha
See all the characteristics
Grapes Muscat black has many synonyms of the name – Cayaba, Red Frontignansky, FEKET Mushkay and others.
History of removal
Still the origin of grapes Muscat black remains unknown. It is believed that this mutation of white muscat. The first mentions about this grade take the beginning in the XIX century. For the first time it was discovered on the Crimean Peninsula on the South side.
For aging, it requires a warm climate, so it grows mainly in the Crimea and in the south of France. Very capricious to frosts, does not have high frost resistance.
Leaves in the mucat of black rounded shape light green. External surface without shine, matte, dissection of sheet medium. Redanished spots appear on the leaves when the ripening of berries.
This variety is suitable for growing in warm climates. With proper care gives a good high quality harvest, which has a good storage period and high transportability.
In terms of ripening, the average varnish grape varieties. Usually a full time term is 137-149 days from the barring to the aging of the harvest. Start of maturation – September, but collect bunches later to let sugar sugar in berries.
Its clusters are rather dense, have a cylinder form with small blades and weigh from about 75-90 grams each.
The fruits of this variety of a round shape, a rich black color with a thick peuine, elastic to the touch, with durable skin and a delicate juicy flesh. Each berry is from 2 to 3 seeds. The diameter of each berry is 15-19 mm, it is considered an average size.
During the aging, their color changes from dark blue to saturated black. But the juice of berries does not have color, it is transparent.
It has a harmonious taste with a weak nutmeg aroma. Since this grade is saturated with sugar, raisins are made of it. With the required excerpt in the bunches accumulated up to 30% sugar, which makes it possible to make a red wine “Golden Field” from this variety with a beautiful bouquet, not by inferior wines from other nutmeg grape varieties. And also combine with grapes Aleahiko to obtain exquisite wine “Muscat Black Massandra”.
According to the ratio of fruitless shoots and replacing them usually 61% and 39%, respectively. But over time, replacement kidneys can produce fruitless vines, from which the crop is not less collecting than from the main fruitless shoots. The yield of the variety is high and ranges from 40 to 100 centners with hectares of the square.
Selecting planting material
Gardeners with experience recommend newcomers to take cuttings and seedlings for those who made them from their vine and is engaged in the production of such material professionally.
You can evaluate the quality that cuts a small amount of bark. When growing a bush from a cutting and compliance with agrotechnology rules, the survival rate is about 90%, high quality plants are practically guaranteed. There is the ability to control the development of grapes at all stages.
Under the compliance with the Rules of Agrotechnology, the survival rate is about 100%. Saplings must be healthy. Pay attention to the absence of fuses, growths and other signs of diseases.
Features of cultivation
The grade of this grape does not like very wet and strongly lime soil. He needs a warm climate and moderate watering. As well as timely trimming of unnecessary shoots.
Best to plant on the sunny plot. The soil must be moderate humidity and breathable. And also form small bushes and do not give them great loads.
To collect the first harvest, from the beginning of the landing should pass 4 years. Although the very first harvest may appear for 2-3 years after disembarking.
In order to 3 years old, the vine gives a signal harvest, it is necessary to take into account the set of factors – from the type of soil on the plot to the nearby plants.The best time for landing most varieties – autumn, and in the cold regions, preparations for landing start in August. Saplings are transferred to the ground at the end of September or in 1 decade of October. For autumn landing, only plants with ridiculous vines are suitable, with a developed root system and with 8-10 eyes.Tips for beginners will help to figure out the optimal schemes for the location of seedlings and cuttings, as well as in other subtleties of this process.
Type of soil
Grapes grown on sand, black earth and clay soils. For each of the options for the composition of the soil, the preparation process will noticeably differ.
Planting vegetative saplings
The basic rules are the same for weird and vegetable seedlings. Vegetable call seedlings obtained by a greenhouse.
Cuttings – processes without its own root system. They are always rooted in autumn. The procedure is starting after the foliage will be.
The following plants have a favorably affect grapes: Siderats, cucumbers, strawberries, onions and garlic, roses, Early grades of white cabbage and greens.
Does not require additional pollination, maybe self-polluted due to the presence of flowers of both sexes. Zajaz is usually very large, and it smoothly goes into a column.
This grape variety requires trimming of new shoots. He is not allowed to grow strongly to the parties, as this can affect the quality of the harvest.
So that the berries are large and juicy, it is necessary to organize a full watering and feeding. All standards need to be adjusted to weather conditions and the rate of evaporation of fluid.
With a frequent watering scheme, the moisturizing is recommended once every two weeks (that is, twice a month during flowering and the appearance of berries) so much so that the land is impregnated by 50 cm deep into the plant so that the plant does not switch to surface (dewn) roots. This amount can be reduced if the straw is mulching.
With a rare watering scheme, choosing the age and time of ripening grapes, you can use the standards presented in the table in another article.
Frost resistance and need for shelter
Has very low frost resistance, so it is not suitable for growing in the northern regions. Although later than other muscates produces kidneys and is not so exposed to frosts. To obtain a good crop requires additional shelter bushes.
Diseases and pests
This type of grape is quite resistant to fungal diseases, for example, to gray mold, and significantly less often than other nutmeg varieties. But very susceptible to such diseases as Cherver, Mildew, is amazed by a cluster leaflet.
Overview of all diseases and pests
If grapes are exposed to any disease or insect, it is always reflected in its appearance. May suffer both separate parts of the plant and the whole culture as a whole.Grape kidneys are usually most of all suffer from leaf-making parasites.Berries damage mainly appear in the presence of fungal diseases. Leaves are always affected to a greater extent, many diseases are immediately recognized by them.
The most important feature of the disease is the presence of white fluffy wave in the lower part of the sheet plate.
Symptoms of the disease are manifested from the top of the sheet – yellow spots with an ash-gray bloom appear, even with a whitish tint.
Gray Gnil >>
The main signs of gray rot: the appearance on foliage and berries of brown spots and gray plaque, the occurrence of brown divorces and gray spraying on the vine.
On the leaves there are brown specks with dark color casing. Over time, due to the fact that the fabrics of the plant die, holes appear on the leaves.
Its collected berries are well transferred to transport and can keep freshness and its trade look. The crop is wicked away from sunlight, preferably in a cool place to extend the shelf life.