- Authors: University of Minnesota, USA
- Purpose: Technical
- Berry color: Navy blue
- Taste: Locked
- Ripening time (filter): average
- Frost resistance, ° C: -38
- Yield: 80-100 c / ha
- Appeared when crossed: Minnesota 1094 X Rava Noir
- Year of assumptions: 2006
- Berry shape: rounded
See all the characteristics
Marquette variety gained popularity among gardeners due to unpretentiousness, as well as a number of positive characteristics. Berries are highly appreciated in the manufacture of wine drinks.
History of removal
This type was led by US University employees located in Minnesota. The variety appeared in 1994. To get marquett grapes, specialists crossed several different varieties, each of which has special characteristics. Tests of the new fruit culture were successfully held in 2005, after which it was officially patented.
Basic characteristics of bushes – rapid growth. The crowns have a young vine closed, with a little omitting. Medium-sized foliage. Form – Round. Leaves with three or five blades are decorated with teeth, with weak dissection. Color – Dark, Saturated Green. On his background, light veins are visible. Surface smooth and smooth.
Another distinctive feature – vertical growth, at the expense of which sunlight evenly warms the vine throughout the length.
The plant belongs to cultures with an average maturation. The period of vegetation number from 125 to 130 days from the date of the dissolution of the first leaflets and before the collection of fruits. As a rule, berries are growing up for the second half of August or by the beginning of the fall.
On one shoot – 2 clusters (in rare cases there are 3). Size – medium. Shape – cylindroconic or conical. Weight varies from 200 to 400 grams. Length – about 10 centimeters. Fruit structure – loose or moderate dense.
Color – Saturated Blue. In some cases, the color can be practically black, with a blue sweat. Sugar content – 260 g / dm³. Acidness level – 2.9 g / dm³. Berries are small and have a rounded form. Dimensions – 12-14 millimeters in diameter. Weight – about 1 gram. Despite the fact that the skin is thin, it is pretty durable. There is a wax flare. The flesh is painted in a light pink shade. Inside a few small bones.
The taste of this variety is described as soft, harmonious and sweet. Pronounced varietal features. Due to gastronomic qualities, fruits are used to prepare wine.
If correctly and regularly care for the garden culture, the yield indicator will be from 80 to 100 c / ha.
Selecting planting material
Gardeners with experience recommend newcomers to take cuttings and seedlings for those who made them from their vine and is engaged in the production of such material professionally.
You can evaluate the quality that cuts a small amount of bark. When growing a bush from a cutting and compliance with agrotechnology rules, the survival rate is about 90%, high quality plants are practically guaranteed. There is the ability to control the development of grapes at all stages.
Under the compliance with the Rules of Agrotechnology, the survival rate is about 100%. Saplings must be healthy. Pay attention to the absence of fuses, growths and other signs of diseases.
Features of cultivation
The first thing you need to know about the marquette variety in its cultivation is a kind of high resistance to freezers. Thanks to this characteristic, the variety can be cultivated in the northern regions with long and harsh winters.
Carrying seedlings can be found in autumn or spring. You need to choose exact time depending on the age of the plant. Annual seedlings that were rooted last season, it is recommended to plant in spring. The best time is the end of April or the end of May. In the period from the end of spring until the end of June, it is necessary to plant green seedlings. If you plan to start landing in the fall, select the period from late September to early October.
Grapes Marquette grapes grows remarkably on light and warm sections. Therefore, planting the plant is preferably on the plot in the south side. So it will get the required amount of sunlight. Plots on hills are best suited. Such a location minimizes the probability of stagnation of excess fluid.
And also need to take into account the presence of groundwater. Their minimum depth must have 2.5 meters. Otherwise you need to play a drainage. This variety grows wonderful on loose ground. As well as land must be moisture-permeable and without any problems to pass the air. Perfect Earth for Grapes – Summer and Suglinki.
In order to 3 years old, the vine gives a signal harvest, it is necessary to take into account the set of factors – from the type of soil on the plot to the nearby plants.The best time for landing most varieties – autumn, and in the cold regions, preparations for landing start in August. Saplings are transferred to the ground at the end of September or in 1 decade of October. For autumn landing, only plants with ridiculous vines are suitable, with a developed root system and with 8-10 eyes.Tips for beginners will help to figure out the optimal schemes for the location of seedlings and cuttings, as well as in other subtleties of this process.
Type of soil
Grapes grown on sand, black earth and clay soils. For each of the options for the composition of the soil, the preparation process will noticeably differ.
Planting vegetative saplings
The basic rules are the same for weird and vegetable seedlings. Vegetable call seedlings obtained by a greenhouse.
Cuttings – processes without its own root system. They are always rooted in autumn. The procedure is starting after the foliage will be.
The following plants have a favorably affect grapes: Siderats, cucumbers, strawberries, onions and garlic, roses, Early grades of white cabbage and greens.
During the flowering period, the plant is covered by buds of both sexes. Thanks to this feature, grapes can be independently pollinated. Additional measures do not need to do.
Pruning is performed only for bushes, the age of which has already reached 3 years. Such a procedure will significantly increase aeration and illumination, which will positively affect the quality of the harvest.
With the arrival of spring it is recommended to spend dry garter. Last year shoots tied to the grinding. So they will not be afraid of early spring frosts. The best time to perform work depends on the cultivation region. On the territory of the Moscow region it is June. In the southern strip, the garter is held in April.
Useful will be removed excess vine. On one bush leave from 35 to 40 eyes. So that the plant is not very pulled out, the top of the shoots pinch. If you found fruitless shoots, they need to be removed immediately. Such branches will pick up nutrients in berries.
Bushes of this variety do not need often. Excessive amount of moisture detrimental for the plant. Irrigation can be performed only 1 time in a month if a sufficient precipitation falls in the region. You can not water grapes during flowering. Use only warm water (temperature from 15 to 20 degrees Celsius with a plus sign). Be sure to perform irrigation three times: before the blooming of the kidneys, before the start of flowering and after the foliage completely disappeared.
So that the berries are large and juicy, it is necessary to organize a full watering and feeding. All standards need to be adjusted to weather conditions and the rate of evaporation of fluid.
With a frequent watering scheme, the moisturizing is recommended once every two weeks (that is, twice a month during flowering and the appearance of berries) so much so that the land is impregnated by 50 cm deep into the plant so that the plant does not switch to surface (dewn) roots. This amount can be reduced if the straw is mulching.
With a rare watering scheme, choosing the age and time of ripening grapes, you can use the standards presented in the table in another article.
To obtain a rich and stable crop need to use fertilizers. Experienced gardeners recommend using mineral compositions that are rich in nitrogen and phosphorus. And you can also use the organic, for example, a solution of manure. Formulations with potassium and phosphorus are introduced during the formation of the barriers and aging of berries. Cover the soil compost twice a year. The organic is laid down under the bushes.
Frost resistance and need for shelter
Variety Marquette is not afraid of strong frosts. Garden culture withstands up to -38 degrees Celsius. In addition, the plant has resistance to sharp temperature fluctuations. Due to this characteristic, grapes do not need to be covered by winter.
Diseases and pests
Technical grade has congenital resistance to pulse and false torment. And the plant almost does not affect gray rot or black leg. Such stability of grapes remains even with capricious weather conditions (sharp drops of temperature, pouring rains). Sometimes grapes amazes Filoxker. In order for the plant to feel comfortable, it will be worthwhile to perform preventive treatment with chemical compositions.
Overview of all diseases and pests
If grapes are exposed to any disease or insect, it is always reflected in its appearance. May suffer both separate parts of the plant and the whole culture as a whole.Grape kidneys are usually most of all suffer from leaf-making parasites.Berries damage mainly appear in the presence of fungal diseases. Leaves are always affected to a greater extent, many diseases are immediately recognized by them.
The most important feature of the disease is the presence of white fluffy wave in the lower part of the sheet plate.
Symptoms of the disease are manifested from the top of the sheet – yellow spots with an ash-gray bloom appear, even with a whitish tint.
Gray Gnil >>
The main signs of gray rot: the appearance on foliage and berries of brown spots and gray plaque, the occurrence of brown divorces and gray spraying on the vine.
On the leaves there are brown specks with dark color casing. Over time, due to the fact that the fabrics of the plant die, holes appear on the leaves.
Harvesting is necessary using a secaterator or sharpened scissors. Store borders follows in wooden boxes. Optimal temperature – from 3 to 10 degrees of heat Celsius. Another crop storage option – hanging it on wire. Berries should not touch each other. So the fruits will maintain a commodity view for several months.