- Authors: E. Snyder, California, United States
- Purpose: Table
- Berry color: Violet-red, with a smoky wax chain
- Taste: Light muscany
- With bones: Yes
- Ripening time (filter): Very early
- Ripening time, days: 121
- Frost resistance, ° C: -18
- Weight bunchy, g: 342-510
- Type of flower: Oboy
See all the characteristics
Grapes Cardinal applies to popular table varieties that have been distributed in Western and Eastern Europe, USA. Russia also estimated its high yields, exquisite taste properties, excellent freight. The variety cannot be called new, he has already established himself as one of the best in his category.
History of removal
Grapes Cardinal brought breeders from the USA. Snyder and F. Harmon in California. To obtain a new form, popular varieties of Alfons Lavalle and Queen of vineyards were taken. Initially, among the parent species mentioned Flame Tokay. A later genetic analysis showed that the Queen of the Vineyards was used instead.
The variety was obtained at the experimental station in Fresno in 1939. Today, its base has created popular hybrids Cardinal AZOS, K-80, K-87 and others. In the USSR, the original variety was brought in 1958 from the territory of France. In the state register made 16 years later.
The variety refers to very early. The amount of temperature required by him to the state of technological maturity is 2308 degrees Celsius. Average aging time – 121 days. In the south of Russia, this period can be reduced to 105 days.
The variety is characterized by a loose structure of the brush. Cylindrical or conical shape, with a long leg of green. Mass reaches 342-510 g. The dimensions of the bunches in the width reach 130-190 mm at a length of up to 280 mm.
For grape varieties Cardinal characterized by a saturated purple-red, the surface of the peel is dense, has a wax. Inside there are bones in an amount from 2 to 4 pieces. The form varies from spherical to oval. Berry size large. Weight up to 7-9 g.
Balanced flavored gamut of grape berries Cardinal is distinguished by a slight nutmeg, a honey aftertaste is traced. The sugar content of this variety reaches 156-180 g / dm3 with acidity of 7-8.4 g / dm3. Crispy flesh, saturated with juice. By tasting evaluation, the grade receives 8-9 points.
According to this indicator, the cardinal has high potential, but insufficient stability. On young bushes, it does not exceed 1 kg with a bunge and 15 kg with a bush. As weighing the vines, these indicators are increasing. Can reach 20-25 kg with 1 bush.
Selecting planting material
Gardeners with experience recommend newcomers to take cuttings and seedlings for those who made them from their vine and is engaged in the production of such material professionally.
You can evaluate the quality that cuts a small amount of bark. When growing a bush from a cutting and compliance with agrotechnology rules, the survival rate is about 90%, high quality plants are practically guaranteed. There is the ability to control the development of grapes at all stages.
Under the compliance with the Rules of Agrotechnology, the survival rate is about 100%. Saplings must be healthy. Pay attention to the absence of fuses, growths and other signs of diseases.
Features of cultivation
Cardinal grade belongs to the thermo-loving subspecies of grapes. Initially, it was cultivated under the conditions of a soft California climate. On an industrial scale, cultivation is recommended solely in the territories with a predominance of warm weather, sundrying sunny days. It is possible to landing bushes on the slopes with the South and South-Western sides of the site. Optimal Soil Selection – Light Sands and Suglinka, Chernozem.
The optimal solution for the Cardinal grade is considered a cordon landing. It is important to choose a well warmed by the sun without a strong wind, with sufficient shelter. Reproduction is most often in adulthood of more cold-resistant varieties. When staring the material harvesting is made from autumn, the vaccination is performed in 3 decade of April.
Landing in the ground is carried out when the soil is warped to the indicators not lower than +10 degrees. Otherwise, the landing material simply does not fit. Cherenkov should be formed roots. The planting substrate is squealing with organica, potassium and phosphorus. This will allow not to fertilize the soil in addition to the first 3-4 years of the formation of the bush.
In order to 3 years old, the vine gives a signal harvest, it is necessary to take into account the set of factors – from the type of soil on the plot to the nearby plants.The best time for landing most varieties – autumn, and in the cold regions, preparations for landing start in August. Saplings are transferred to the ground at the end of September or in 1 decade of October. For autumn landing, only plants with ridiculous vines are suitable, with a developed root system and with 8-10 eyes.Tips for beginners will help to figure out the optimal schemes for the location of seedlings and cuttings, as well as in other subtleties of this process.
Type of soil
Grapes grown on sand, black earth and clay soils. For each of the options for the composition of the soil, the preparation process will noticeably differ.
Planting vegetative saplings
The basic rules are the same for weird and vegetable seedlings. Vegetable call seedlings obtained by a greenhouse.
Cuttings – processes without its own root system. They are always rooted in autumn. The procedure is starting after the foliage will be.
The following plants have a favorably affect grapes: Siderats, cucumbers, strawberries, onions and garlic, roses, Early grades of white cabbage and greens.
Plant forms Oboy Flowers. Refers to the category of self-polluted. With unfavorable weather and climatic conditions, flowers and wounds are satisted. Additional pollination with the use of puffs.
Grapes Cardinal needs to normalize the number of covers on escape. Trimming the vine is produced up to 5-6 eyes. On the bush they are left in the amount of 25-30 pieces. The formation is made both by the type of biscuit Gyuo and Veterno. In the appropriate climate it is possible to grow on a high strain.
For the winter recommended a short trimming of 3 kidneys. Related vines are not left.
Grapes Cardinal refers to drought-resistant varieties. It is important for it to moderate maintenance of soil moisture, without overflow, leading to cracking. When revealing water stagnation, it is necessary to take care of drainage. Watering in a volume of 10-20 liters of warm water on the bush is carried out 3-4 times during the season. The bushes also show the mulching of the priority zone.
So that the berries are large and juicy, it is necessary to organize a full watering and feeding. All standards need to be adjusted to weather conditions and the rate of evaporation of fluid.
With a frequent watering scheme, the moisturizing is recommended once every two weeks (that is, twice a month during flowering and the appearance of berries) so much so that the land is impregnated by 50 cm deep into the plant so that the plant does not switch to surface (dewn) roots. This amount can be reduced if the straw is mulching.
With a rare watering scheme, choosing the age and time of ripening grapes, you can use the standards presented in the table in another article.
Cardinal variety is needed regular feeding. In the spring and autumn periods in the ground at the base of the bush bring a layer of compost, sprinkting it to a height of 60-80 mm. And also need to ensure the arrival of the mineral complex for 3-4 times per season. It is usually carried out at the exit of the first leaves and after harvesting, as well as before the disclosure of buds and on the completion of flowering.
Frost resistance and need for shelter
Grade does not apply to frost-resistant. Withstands the decrease in atmospheric temperatures within -18 degrees. Needs shelter for the winter. Perennial preservation of the bush is significantly complicated by its low frost resistance. Upon completion of harvesting, the vine must be assembled into a beam, tie and burn to the ground. The shelter is performed by a thick layer of straw, greenhouse film or direct ground.
Diseases and pests
Cardinal grade refers to the subspecies of grapes subject to various fungal diseases. It needs regular inspection, fungicidal treatment of a bush from mildew, gray rot, oidium, bacterial cancer with colloidal sulfur solution. The composition is applied by spraying, on leaves and shoots. Among the pests dangerous for him, it is possible to distinguish a cluster leaflet, OS and birds attacking plants during the crop maturation.
Overview of all diseases and pests
If grapes are exposed to any disease or insect, it is always reflected in its appearance. May suffer both separate parts of the plant and the whole culture as a whole.Grape kidneys are usually most of all suffer from leaf-making parasites.Berries damage mainly appear in the presence of fungal diseases. Leaves are always affected to a greater extent, many diseases are immediately recognized by them.
The most important feature of the disease is the presence of white fluffy wave in the lower part of the sheet plate.
Symptoms of the disease are manifested from the top of the sheet – yellow spots with an ash-gray bloom appear, even with a whitish tint.
Gray Gnil >>
The main signs of gray rot: the appearance on foliage and berries of brown spots and gray plaque, the occurrence of brown divorces and gray spraying on the vine.
On the leaves there are brown specks with dark color casing. Over time, due to the fact that the fabrics of the plant die, holes appear on the leaves.
Cardinal grapes are characterized by high performance and transportation. It refers to early, can be stored under favorable conditions up to 3 months. When transporting is recommended dense laying of brushes.