Apple tree is one of the most beloved fruit crops in the gardeners, it can be found in almost every country and any household plot. For the winter, trees are experiencing severe frosts and attacks of cade-haired rodents, so with the arrival of spring they need special care. From how correctly all agrotechnical works will be fulfilled in a timely manner, the quality and volume of the future harvest depends.
What to do in march?
It should be taken for carrying out agrotechnical work immediately, as soon as the average daily temperature is set at a mark above zero of degrees, without waiting for a complete snow cover. The complex of spring procedures includes sanitary trimming, feeding, whitewings, processing damaged areas, as well as protection against pests and fungi insects.
Suitable time to remove the shelter after winter depends on the climatic characteristics of each particular region. The optimal temperature indicator is considered to be the interval from +12 to +16 degrees during the daytime. In the suburbs, this period comes a little earlier, in Siberia, in the Urals and in the Leningrad region – later. At this time, the apple tree fade from snow and open.
To prepare a culture for a meeting with bright sunshine, all work is desirable to spend on a cloudy, but not a rainy day. Young trees will need shading on the south side – this measure allows you to protect their gentle bark from burns and deformation. It is very important because there are inconsistent burns in the first stages over time lead to severe plant diseases.
Release a tree from winter shelter is better in parts, spending it 3-4 days. So young culture gradually gets used to new external conditions.
Identification and treatment of damage
In the first half of March it is very important to inspect the branches and stack of wood on the subject of delamination of the crust and damage. Insect pests can be placed in these sites. Also, damage is often associated with the burning of the tree with rodents during the winter months.
Inspection must be started from the lower sections of the barrel. It will be worth considering the old bark of the apple tree with a piece of grid-chain challenges, it is necessary to do it after the rain. All detected minor damage is treated with garden harvest or clay diluted with manure. Small infections can be cured if you apply a solution of 1 kg of salt on the affected places, 2 kg of wood ash and 2 pieces of crushed soap dissolved in water bucket.
Brown spots that appeared as a result of frostbite, you need to cut off to the lively tissue and carefully process the antiseptic agent. In case the destruction of the cortex takes more than half the diameter of the barrel, the plant will be required by the bridge. For this use native cuttings, or take the material from frost-resistant varieties.
Significant damage to culture can bring meters and lichens, they must be deleted. They are striking and young, and old plants, the peak of the activity of these organisms is observed with high humidity.
The appearance of moss and lichens contribute:
- Frosted and received solar burns wood;
- Excessive workload of the crown;
- Related rhizomes.
If you do not take timely measures, the growth and development of apple culture will slow down, the tree will be subject to all sorts of infections. As a result, dying branches, and a significant reduction in yield. Lichens and mosses on the apple tree core overlap the respiratory pores of the tree, thereby creating an ideal medium for breeding insect pests.
For the treatment of wood, perform a number of simple actions.
- Inspect the apple tree for patients, broken and old branches.
- Cut all the fragments that are strongly damaged by moss and lichen.
- Provide good air masses in Crown. To do this, trim branches in thickened areas.
If the defeat is small, then the moss can be removed by hand. Make it easy – polyethylene spread under the tree, and then neatly with a brush or wooden sticks take a mossy raid, trying not to cause damage to wood.
After the completion of the cleaning of plants, you can move to a whitewash. Such processing creates additional trunk protection and skeletal bribes from sudden temperature jumps in night and daytime. If you do not spend this job, cracks will inevitably appear in the cortex, and this will lead to diseases of the plant. In addition, the whits creates effective protection against rodent attacks and insect pests. And if formulations based on lime, they prevent the development of fungal infections.
In addition, white color has a property to reflect the sun’s rays. This minimizes the risk of burns on the crust. Usually, the spring whitewashes rain, so the processing is repeated at least 2-3 times. Start this process is better at the bottom up, smoothly moving to the first skeletal branches. For processing use special garden paints. Alternatively, you can use chalk, diluted with water to creamy consistency. Lime take only adult trees, on the crust of young apple trees she can cause burns.
Properly performed spring trimming of fruit crops is an important condition for the healthy development of the apple tree and obtaining a rich harvest. Getting rid of extra branches and young shoots is very important for the rejuvenation of the fruit plant. As for young trees, this procedure helps them to form a crown. Pruning spend early spring, even before swelling. Work in the middle of spring when a green cone is formed, it is impossible.
Sanitary trimming assumes the removal of all the ribbed branches – the fruits are not allowed, but they pull the mass of nutrients. And it is also necessary to cut all shoots growing in the center, over time they cause the crown thickening, thereby worsening fruiting. In this case, the branches forming the skeleton of the tree should be located at least 40 cm from each other. Molding trimming allows developing branches to balance and submit to the main conductor. Apple trees who have reached the age of 2-3 years, completely cut out the competing escape of the main conductor. The remaining skeletal branches are slightly shortened, configuring them for the weak.
Similarly, the apple tree is shortened with a height of 5 m and more. It is best to take a hacksaw for this procedure or manual secateurs. Crossing should be carried out in such a way that the remaining sections of the shoots are all the kidneys are directed up or on the outside of the crown.
In the future, you only need to monitor the growing tops, and to form the right crown – this will prevent the thicance subsequently.
Protection against frozen
In the spring, not rare return freezers. They can apply significant damage to cropped branches and processed trunk. Therefore, it is very important to pay attention to the protection of a tree. These measures are especially relevant at the flowering stage, otherwise hope for a good harvest is not worth.
Protect a tree from return freezers with water or smoke. When using the first method on the night before the projected frosts, it is necessary to spray the crown from the hose with a sprayer or even leave the water all night. Thin icy crust on the surface will allow the plant to save heat. However, such procedures are categorically prohibited for windy weather.
For the organization of the smoke curtain, it is necessary to drive in the land of the stake, put it with peat, straw or dry leaves. On top of this pile are sprinkled by a slightly moistened soil. Before sunset, count carefully remove and set fire. Experienced gardeners argue that a bunch of 50 cm highs and a diameter of 1 m can save one hundred garden from frosts.
Processing against diseases and pests
The main condition for growing a healthy apple tree is the timely processing of culture by means against fungus and pest larvae. With the arrival of heat insects are activated. During this period, it should be fixed on the barrels of the trap belt so that pests cannot cause damage.
High prophylactic effect give spraying. It is necessary to conduct them at the moment when the kidney becomes a noticeable greenish cone. Experienced gardeners recommend fungicides “Fufanon”, as well as “Horus” and “Decis”. They can be mixed with each other – it will allow simultaneously creating protection against insects, bacterial and fungal infections. A good result gives the treatment of plants and a priority circle with copper vigorous or burgundy liquid. Spray the garden better in the evening.
How to care for April?
April concerns about the apple orchard for the most part are related to the care of young trees. During this period, plants are required by watering, the supply of nutrient feeding, loosening and mulching of the priority zone. Spring watering becomes a mandatory stage of apple tree care. This is especially true in the southern regions of our country, where snow cover comes early. The useful elements dissolved in water are actively absorbed by roots and spread over all tissues and cells of the plant. As a result, photosynthesis processes are activated, and the rapid blooming of leaves and buds begins.
For the trees who have reached 3-5 years, a one-time watering is required from the calculation of 5 Verders for each plant. For adult cultures of 7-12 years old need 2 times more water. Old fruiting plants require abundant moisture. Spring watering need to be carried out to the period of blown. Subsequently, young trees will have to pour another 4-6 times. As the culture grows, the amount of irrigation is reduced, but at the same time increase the volume of water. Aging trees will be enough pairs of irrigation over the growing season.
The obligatory stage of the spring care for the garden is the breaking of the Earth in the nearvatral circle. This measure will enrich the substrate with oxygen. It is very important how to proceed the ground around the strain to prevent the formation of the crust. This procedure is performed by garden hoes, deepening it no more than 3-4 cm. Otherwise you can damage the roots. It is very important to remove all weeds. They grow quickly, take away nutrition and water. In addition, the larvae of pests and spores of fungi often live in them. Prepared Plot should be covered with mulch. The greatest effect will give the use of humus, it is laid out for a thickness of 6-10 cm. But sawdust and sour peat should not be used. Mulching allows you to solve several problems at once – it retains water, restrains the growth of weeds and enhances the nutrition of fruit plantations.
In April, the plant requires the introduction of the first nutritional feeding, they all spend 3-4 times the growing season. In the last decade of the month, a period of active growth of leaves usually begins in the central strip of Russia, and to help an apple tree to grow green mass; it needs to be filled. For this, the processing is performed at the rate of 5 buckets of humus or 600-700 g of urea per adult tree.
Care in May
With the arrival of the May heat, an apple tree requires the second feeding, it is carried out at the beginning of flowering. And during this period, re-chemical treatment against pests and causative agents of diseases. In the case of the formation of ovary from each beam, it is necessary to remove the central margin – this will significantly improve the fruiting. When the apple tree blooms, she needs re-feeding. Best of all during this period, the plants respond to complex formulations. For this, the bucket of manure is mixed with 1 kg of superphosphate, 300 g of potassium sulphate, all this is bred in 50 liters of water. The composition insists 7 days, and produce watering. This volume is enough to process one adult tree. If you have no organic substances at hand, they can be replaced by 500 g of urea or 1 bottle of concentrate “Effectton”. The resulting mixture is perfectly smeared and leave for 7 days. The nutrient solution is made from the calculation of 5 vender for each tree around the circumference at a distance of 60-70 m from the barrel.
Before and after the feeding, it is necessary to shed the land near the trunk of water. If you make feeding to dry, it will cause the root burn. At the same time, one more treatment is carried out from pests and infections, it is best to do this at the stage of formation. At this time, highly toxic compositions are inappropriate, it is better to use bioactive “phytodeter” or “Akarin”. And can also be used by system insecticides, they retain their action for 3-4 weeks. If the plant is sick, and you use potent drugs, then the first result of their activities will be noticeable after 4 hours. Such processing is carried out twice per season. After the start of active deployment, you can vaccinate young trees. This will improve the qualitative characteristics of the crop.
The right calender care in spring time allows you to lay the foundations of healthy wood development. Therefore, it is impossible to ignore the basic rules of agrotechnology during this period. Following the recommendations given, you can get a rich harvest of juicy apples.