Features of the apple tree vaccination

Each amateur gardener can become a kind of breeder and grow in her garden a variety of fruits on trees. This is achieved by such agrotechnical admission, like vaccination. In the article we will tell about the peculiarities of the apple vaccination: what it is, in what time frames it is better to produce it, and in what ways it can be done.

Advantages and disadvantages

Thanks to the grafs, trees are rejuvenated, raise fertility. With the right procedure, you can get the fruits of different varieties on one tree – this agrotechnical effect attracts many gardeners. In addition to a variety of harvest, the owner manages to save the area in his area, disappears the need to plant a lot of different-flow trees. And, of course, in this way, you can reanimate the dying tree, keep the fruits that have become loved ones.

Apple tree vaccination in spring has a number of advantages. First of all ahead is a lot of time to capture the wound, favorable weather conditions for development. In addition, new sloping allows tissues better to take care. The disadvantages include what Unpredictable weather in the spring in many regions can lead to unpleasant surprises.

Freezing and cold are detrimental for graft branches. That is why it is necessary to clearly comply with the timing of such works and monitor the temperature regime.

Timing

Experts argue that the vision of the apple trees can be produced at any time of the year (in winter – in a greenhouse). But experienced gardeners still advise newbies to give preference to the spring procedure. What to reinvent the bike when everything has been tested more than once. The fact is that in the spring and the trees themselves are better prepared, and weather conditions correspond, and more opportunities at the gardeners to support the grafted trees. But by and large, the vaccination procedure is practically stretched for the whole season (including subsequent care).

Russia is a big country and talk about specific deadlines for vaccine work for all regions will be wrong. Dates may be varied by weeks, for example, in the Urals, begin to grafted apple trees a little later than in the southern regions. In Siberia and in the Urals, you can navigate on the state of the soil. Take the shovel and try to open – if you calmly succeed in turning the two bayonet of the Earth (it means, apparently, the appearance of an apple tree began), then you can engage in vaccination.

For spring vaccination, the air temperature is the air temperature: watch the trees, as soon as the sludge will begin, it means they “woke up” – it’s time to prepare the tools and the necessary materials. As soon as the nights proceed without zero mark on the thermometer, you can act.

Depending on the climatic features of the terrain, the apple tree is instilled from the beginning of April to the beginning of May. With exact deadlines, everything is ambiguous.

In addition to weather conditions, it is necessary to take into account the types, which method will be vaccinated, other factors. Basically, the gardener is only an experienced way and the observation will determine the moment of the beginning of such works. For many landmarks for vaccinations – this swelling swelling and the very beginning of the opening of the leaves. Some of the amateur gardeners focuses on the lunar calendar. But in this case, you do not need to deepen much in astrology, and wait for the stars to come. Take advantage of the tips of the experienced gardeners – cut the trees when the moon is in a decreasing phase, and engage in vaccinations at the time of the growing moon.

If you still dig into astrological deposits, then the best time to enormous apple trees – when the moon “lives” in watermarks. So it or not – every newcomer has a great opportunity to check it in practice. If you rely on science, it is best to put an apple tree in the second half of spring before the start of flowering. As soon as the temperature decorates at the level of +15 degrees and above, you can take a case. Best do this in the morning or in the evening in a rainy day.

If you intend to vaccinate a cutlets, then it is better to do this in March-April, and if you want to make an eyepiece by the kidney, then a little later – for this it comes out of the middle of April to the beginning of May. Again, the regional features of the terrain are taken into account. Gardeners living in the south of Russia can quietly engage in vaccination with the onset of March, but in the Moscow region it is not recommended to touch the trees before April. The climate of the Urals and the Leningrad region will allow the vaccinations only closer to May.

Main ways

For beginner gardeners should not be problems with how to create an apple tree. You can do it yourself in different ways: there are many ways. You need to choose a convenient option, and be sure to take into account the grade of culture.

There are more than 200 methods of apple trees. Typically, this is made by freshly cutting or cutlets, you can simply with the eye. Many believe that it is better to do it on a young tree, but experienced gardeners make an older apple tree trunks (for stronger branches suitable drilling method). Consider the most popular ways to vaccinate apple.

Copuling

For this method, choose a lead and dive (it is desirable that they were the same thickness) – then the splicing occurs qualitatively. This method of copulating has improved due to an additional extrem, which is done both on the vaccination branch (cuttings) and in the vaccinated trunk.

We will analyze how to perform vaccination.

  • On the stock and the same are the same cuts from 2 to 4 cm long.
  • Next you do one slice to height in about 1/3 of the base (peculiar tongs are formed, they also have to be the same size – both on the apple tree and on the cheeseen branch). Experienced gardeners argue that the quality of cultures of cultures depends on the size of the tongue cut, and it is recommended to do it longer – so the vaccination will be stronger.
  • Cuttings are strengthened in a cut, Tightly clamping fingers.

You can fix the place of gravity.

In crap

When the thickness of the lead and the stock will differ significantly, this method apply.

Sequencing.

  • Take acute hacksaw and screaming the selected branch. Recommended to retreat from the base (trunk) about a third meter, and from the Earth – at least 12-15 cm.
  • Escape in the middle splitting.
  • Stalks insert in this way, To get a complete coincidence of fabrics.
  • Connection places lubricate garden lime (Wara), Tight grind the vaccine docking with a dark film.

If you are not sure of the vaccination, you will repeat the process with another cutlets, and if you are sure, stop in one graftive. By the way, the experienced gardeners make vaccinations in such a way that there is no split, but in the semi-trap, that is, they do a nozzle not in the middle, but breaking the stalk on the side, making only a small incision.

Bridge

This method allows you to accomplish in the case when the bark of the barrel of rodents, or it was damaged by other pests. First cleaned these places, and then perform a number of actions.

  • Above and damage do along the cuts.
  • Cut cuttings, and purify them from kidney.
  • On withdrawal do union cuts.
  • Now strengthen the layout in such a way that the bottom of the cutter coincides with the bottom of the damage on the tree, and the top with the upper part (with a cut above the damage).
  • Complete the process of processing the joints with garden water and a tight strapping from a black film.

You can protect the jigging joints of burlap.

On boring

When difference in the thickness of the cutting and stock, the method “on the bark” or, as others, “under the bark” are called. Such a method is still convenient when rather large branches take for gravity. Consider the procedure.

  • Cutting cuttings with 2-3 kidneys diagonally at a distance from the bodily part half meter (you can a little and more – up to 70 cm).
  • The boron on the main tree is neatly separated, and make an incision about 5-6 cm.
  • On the cutlets make an oblique cut with a length of 4 cm, and insert it under the bark of an outdoor side.

Ending the vaccination with the treatment of garden borants and tight film strapping.

Budding

This method is different from the fact that the grafting occurs not with a cutlets, but by the kidney. And for this suitable as germinating eyes and sleeping kidney. Spring (April) is most suitable for eyepiece – so there is a chance to see a young escape in the current season. It is made in two ways: in the incision (letter “T”) and in the butt. Consider each technique separately.

Ocalidation in incision (kidney).

  • Cut off the shield (a bit with a bark) with a width of 5 to 8 mm long at least 2.5-3 cm.
  • On the branches make a section of the same diameter resembling the letter “T”, and insert the shield into it.
  • Wipe the docking place with the film.

Occulting method in butt.

  • In the inlet part make a screw with “pocket”.
  • From the removal of the desired variety, approximately the same shield is cut off.
  • Install the shield in the resulting “pocket” in such a way as to get a dense fit of the fabrics.
  • The design is wrapped with a film, but the kidney itself is left in the air.
  • After the lead is captured, the escape over the kidney needs to be removed.

In addition to the above methods, the apple trees are vaccinated by the “Penc” method, to the trunk and other. If there are a lot of cuttings, you need to bind to each tag with the name of the variety not to get confused.

Subsequent care

It is very important after grafting to protect the tree from diseases and pests. In the first case, I will save the treatment of garden borants, in the second – tight winding with a dense film. By the way, every 2 weeks need to be updated. To do this, the film is neatly cut by a blade or a sharp knife, making a longitudinal cut. Fully eliminated the tree after 2-3 months depending on the “healing” of the vaccination wound.

Grafted seedlings often become an object for caterpillars and aphids that are looking for juicy shoots for nutrition, so Provide a tree timely watering, the necessary feeding and processing, as well as protection against rodents and birds to get a whole and healthy young escape. At the place of the vaccination, they remove all the pigs, which appears below the vaccination place, while these twigs do not break down, but cut off at the base, otherwise they will grow even more intensively. During the fall, the increasing shoots are necessarily tied up, and the treeper feed the necessary elements.

Stems in the fall again need to be treated with a garden boiler and emphasize, and to save from winter cold, it is better to warm apple. The next spring produces trimming of young seedlings based on the Fortress of Escapes. Leave only the strongest option on each of the vaccinations, and everything else is subject to trimming. Especially clean carefully all the piglets below vaccination. If you see that the plant goes well into growth, you can shorten and left the escape, cutting it up to 1/3. If the vaccination is actively growing, you need to suspend its growth, it is enough to fill up the top.

Useful advice

The most common question of novice gardeners: what to put in an apple tree? Experienced agronomists are responsible for this: to instill better crops and close varieties, and advise to conduct a procedure on the Dichka. Well, indeed, this is the most common method. A garden apple tree extends life, immunity is produced to cold and diseases, in the end, we are talking about improving the yield. For vaccination, seedlings, which are not more than 4 years old, so that they are not overgrown.

A successful result guarantees compliance with the rules that are important to comply with any of the vaccination methods.

  • Remember that you act as a surgeon (a tree vaccination is an operation), therefore Observe the purity of the toolkit, and work with clean hands, best to carry out the procedure in gloves.
  • Cuts Perform clearly, without curvature and recesses. Take advantage of garden scissors, sharp knife, and better than a special vaccine secateur.
  • Do not touch the cuts of the cuts, do not drop the cuttings on the ground, and quickly insert insert to the prepared place for vaccination.
  • Do not make too strong blowout, it can cause rotting.
  • Performing cuts, try to act Maximum neat, To damage the fabric less.
  • Before the process, the plant is abundant, It will not hurt to bundle the soil near the tree – it will improve the air exchange and absorbing moisture.
  • Tolerent winding with adhesive surfaces outward, so that there are less harmful substances to vaccine. And it is better to use a special dense dark ribbon to winding “wounds”.
  • Winding periodically check and change after 10-14 days. It is necessary so that it does not give a branch.

The winding and all the rigs are removed only after 2 years from the instigation of the tree. All this time, the grafting apple tree must be watered, feed and disenmpate from extra branches in a timely manner. The first fruits on the grafted apple tree may appear just after 2 years. Actively start fruiting grafted cuttings after a 4-year term. If 14-15 days passed, and the vaccination did not take it, then process the location of the garden with the garden, and pull the cuttings. We have to repeat the attempt.

Newcomers-gardeners Over time, they themselves will save a certain experience in the instill of the apple trees, but for now experienced comrades recommend that beginners are not afraid to experiment, and find their approaches.

Much in the vaccination of trees depends on the conditions of residence, weather, regional singularities, and here everyone should adapt and adapt depending on the circumstances and existing factors.

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