Features and technology of breeding apple trees

Apples – Tasty and Useful Product. Everyone has its preferences of fruits and tries to plant favorite varieties on its plot. Time comes, and apple trees need to rejuvenate, the garden update new plantations. There are many ways to breed this plant. In the article, tell about the reproduction of apple trees with cuttings.

Features and technology of breeding apple trees

Features and technology of breeding apple trees

Advantages and disadvantages

The technology of breeding apple tree without a root is known for a long time, from the end of the XIX century. Slaithing in the distant past was engaged in Shredder. AND., Michurin I. IN. and other great breeders, so today we have well-developed techniques. List the advantages of this method.

  • A new plant retains the features of the beloved variety of the apple tree, from which the stalk is taken. And no matter, graft is a tree or grown out of a full seedling.
  • Are engaged in stalling in any season of the year.
  • The age of donor tree does not matter.
  • Cuttings are well saved, they can be safely transported at distances.
  • Trees need seasonal trimming for rejuvenation and crown formation. It is used for the fence of planting material.
  • Shining allows you to get so many future apple trees as a gardener is necessary, and for free.

The cons of this technique includes long rooting and long-term expectation of the result.

Features and technology of breeding apple trees

Features and technology of breeding apple trees

How to grow a seedling from the green branch?

This method allows you to preserve the features of the donor variety. The survival rate of the planting material is from 30 to 60%. Green cuttings are harvested in the end of spring or at the beginning of summer, when an adult plant will acquire a young piglery.

The process of obtaining seedlings from green gains occurs early in the morning.

  • The green branch is cut from the bottom of the tree so that three kidneys are preserved on it. Cut straight over the lower kidney, and the second is 5 cm above the top.
  • The cutlets has three sheets (by the number of kidneys). So that they do not pull juices, the bottom sheet is removed completely, the remaining shortening up to half.
  • For cuttings, water temperature is prepared, activated carbon and preparations for stimulation of root formation are added to it. No more than two twigs are placed in each container.
  • When the roots are formed, cuttings are transplanted in tanks with nutrient soil to the greenhouse.
  • After 2 years, they are put in open ground.

Features and technology of breeding apple trees

The second way of breeding apple trees with green cuttings eliminates the preliminary immersion of them into the water. After the selection of planting material make a number of simple actions.

  • Low boxes prepare for landing of cuttings. At the bottom of the tanks, fertilized nutritional land poured, and from above – a wet layer of sand.
  • Cuttings deepen into the soil centimeter by 2-3, keeping the distance between them no more than 5-6 cm. Then watered.
  • You should not put a box on the windowsill above the battery, it is better to remove into the partially darkened place. A greenhouse builds on a cutter with cuttings. For this, a framework is made in the form of arcs from durable wire, and it is closed with polyethylene.
  • Cuttings allow the roots after 2-3 weeks. And before that, every 3 days for a few minutes take off the shelter and produce sand moisturizing.
  • When the cuttings acquire roots, the film is cleaned and care for seedlings until the autumn itself. Watch the sand is always wet, loose and mulch the soil.
  • In the fall of plants transplanted in separate containers with nutritional land, leave in a greenhouse or other closed place for wintering. If the seedlings are planted into the open ground, they are insulated, revealed from frost.

The process of growing seedlings by green roots can stretch for 1-2 years, so gardeners are infrequently resorted to this method.

Features and technology of breeding apple trees

Features and technology of breeding apple trees

Shooting with the help of weathered cuttings

Modifying the cuttings of the apple tree and without vaccination, just make the seedlings from them, seeking rooting of the planting material. Harvested with a weathered 1-2-year-old cuttings in winter. Choose only healthy shoots from the central part of the crown. That’s what to do next with cut sprigs.

  • The cuttings are preparing so that he begins, but was not completely broken. The breakdown site is chosen in such a way that the kidney is 1-2 cm above it.
  • In a distanced place, the twig is fixed with a tape, helping it to preserve the curved state. In this type of cuttings leave before the arrival of spring. During this time, the plant redirects the vital forces to life, thereby strengthening it. A deformed place covered with a callous cloth, becomes skid.
  • At the very beginning of the spring, the isolent is removed.
  • Then, in place of bending, the cuttings are cut at right angles into two parts. Lower kidney is obtained above the cut. The upper cut should be bevelled and tower a few centimeters above the top kidney.
  • Prepared cuttings are placed in water. To do this, cut off a two-liter bottle of dark plastic, a sponge is installed on the bottom. Water with diluted activated coal, sponge. The cutlets placed in such a vessel should slightly perform over it with its top.
  • Spreads in plastic containers are left for rooting. Three weeks later, the roots of up to 6-7 cm appear on the cuttings. This is enough to start transplanting plants in open ground.
  • Landing the cuttings need to be on a light but a non-jar. So that the sun did not dry still weak sprouts, they can be slightly taken.
  • The plant quickly adapts if it is organized to organize a small greenhouse with a plastic film. After 3 weeks, when the seedlings are rooted, the film must be removed.
  • Further requires care of seedlings, periodic watering throughout the warm season.
  • In the autumn, grown plants transplanted in the places of permanent stay.

Features and technology of breeding apple trees

Features and technology of breeding apple trees

Features and technology of breeding apple trees

There is another method of applying appliant cuttings for reproduction apple trees. Technology has several stages.

  • Cutting cuttings from biennium branches – with three kidneys, no more than 15 cm long. Material collection produced at the end of December.
  • Place it in the box, fall asleep with sand and abundantly moisturize.
  • Before the beginning of the spring, the cuttings in the sand are stored in a cool room with a temperature of no more than +3 degrees.
  • Shortly before landing on the site prepare the container, fall asleep into it the nutrient soil. It is a mixture of chernozem with sand, peat and humus. Soil with neutral acidity can be purchased in the store for gardeners.
  • Then cut the storage places, and they make new, fresh sections on them.
  • Bottom ends lowered to the composition for stimulating root growth.
  • Spreads with an interval of 5-6 cm planted into the container. The kidneys should not be filled with the earth, and if it happens, the lower kidney should be removed.
  • Lached material watered well. He in the future needs regular watering, the soil should not oxidize and dry.
  • Saplings are covered with film, and leave indoors with room temperature, waiting for the development of roots.
  • At the end of March, before planting seedlings in open ground, containers every day in the daytime are put on the street, helping plants acclimatize, and only then transplanted them into the soil.

Features and technology of breeding apple trees

Features and technology of breeding apple trees

How to use root material?

Cuttings for growing seedlings are cut not only from branches, but also from apple root system. To be clearer, root cuttings are the roots fragments taken from the donor tree under the age of 7. Roots contain frozen kidneys, of which young pigs rises. This also enjoy gardes for relatively fast and productive growing seedlings.

But it should be taken into account – so that the characteristics of the varieties are preserved, the donor should be a kinseum apple tree, the resulting fortifications is lost. And otherwise, everything happens on the rolled scheme – the roots need to be shy, plant, germinate.

Features and technology of breeding apple trees

Features and technology of breeding apple trees

Training

The planting material is harvested in the fall, when the tree does not spend strength on the development and maintenance of leaves and fruits, but focusing them in the root system. For overlap Choose roots with a thickness of 1 centimeter. Cut them into fragments of 10-15 cm long. It is necessary to ensure that several kidneys are present in each segment. During cutting felt-tip pen marked the ends of fragments located closer to the tree trunk.

You can spend work and in the summer, but it is the autumn shower that gives a good resistant result with a large percentage of survival.

Features and technology of breeding apple trees

Features and technology of breeding apple trees

Storage

Store to spring cut-off root material in two ways.

  • At the bottom of the wooden box, a little sand pour out, stacked the cuttings into it and fall asleep with their sand until a full coating. The container is installed in the basement or shed, where the air temperature in the winter will be within +5 degrees.
  • Store roots can be in street conditions. To do this, there are recesses in the area, sawdust is placed on the bottom, then the cuttings are placed and completely covered with a layer of sawdust. From above, the material is sprinkled with the ground and insulate the huskien or any other insulation.

Features and technology of breeding apple trees

Disembarking

Early spring, 2 weeks before landing, take out cuttings from storage sites. Next arrive as follows.

  • In a wooden box, sawdust, then insert the roots with a slope. At the same time, the ends marked with felt-tip pen must be at the bottom, and the upper ends need to rise for a couple of centimeters above the drawer.
  • Then the sawdust layer is abundantly watered with water.
  • The container is installed in a warm place. The air temperature should be at least +20 degrees.
  • For several weeks, the kidneys swell on the roots, and shoots start germinate. At this moment, cuttings are transplanted into open ground.
  • At the prepared section, there are deepening, seedlings are installed in them – they should be properly shook, at an angle. Pop up the earth, leaving the tops of the top height of several centimeters.
  • After landing, the seedlings are watered, shrewd, mulch.
  • When the pigle appears, it should be watered 1-2 times a week until it is growing, explode the soil, fertilize mulch. Open area can be pronounced at first time.

The method of reproduction of apple trees with cuttings, sliced ​​from the roots of trees, faster than shifting from branches. But this method has its drawbacks: old apples and plants are not suitable for donation.

Features and technology of breeding apple trees

Common mistakes

Shining gives good results and a high percentage of survival, if not allowed errors that can destroy the fruits of long labor. In the process of work, you must pay attention to several points.

  • The bottom cut of the cutter is made almost under the kidney, removing everything from it for a couple of centimeters.
  • If you leave more than 2-3 leaves on green cuttings, the plant will suffer from moisture loss.
  • All work on the plot (cut cuttings, planting material) It is better to spend early in the morning, in cloudy weather.
  • For cutting twigs, a sharp tool is needed so that the material does not occur.
  • At the steaming stage of the roots, even before landing in open ground, mineral fertilizers do not apply.
  • It is better not to take the planting material from the apple tree that received a lot of nitrate feeding – the survival rate will be extremely low.
  • Root cuttings should land with a thick end down (which was located closer to the tree trunk), otherwise they do not fit.
  • Young stroke need to be protected from direct sunlight. Better to take a bit slowly, and do not miss the time of watering.
  • To protect the cuttings from infection, the location of the cut must be treated with garden borants or other similar means.

If you do everything right, in a few years the garden will delight the owners with young fastened apple trees.

Features and technology of breeding apple trees

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