Apple tree cultivation requires special attention to detail, garden trees are often subjected to various diseases. One of them is a black cancer that can be recognized by a number of symptoms. If there is at least one sign on the tree, it is necessary to immediately begin treatment, as well as adopt preventive measures. Your attention is offered useful information on the features of the disease, the causes of infection, as well as recommendations regarding the fight against black cancer on the apple trees.
What it is?
Black Apple Cancer refers to the category of infectious diseases that are caused by different types of fungus and bacteria. Most often, such a problem is manifested in regions with sharp drops of temperature, but no garden is insured from this ailment. If you do not start the treatment in a timely manner, the trees cease to bear fruit, or the quality of the apples deteriorates noticeably, and over time, the garden may die at all, if not take action.
A fungal infection, which in the people is referred to as “firing”, amazes many fruit trees. Infection begins in the spring, as the disputes suffer even harsh frosts, persist in false foliage or rotten fruits, they can also settle in the creams of the cortex. That is why the garden needs to be careful after the leaffall, removing all unnecessary and old, so as not to leave the place for the development of fungal diseases. Once frosts retreat, woken disputes fall on damaged branches of the apple tree, grow and destroy the cells of the tree. Black cancer can be closed, it is hidden under the influx and blisters of the cortex, the same is more noticeable, as it is formed on deep incentive sites.
The most of all this infection is exposed to old fruit trees, but it is striking and young gardens, so it is important to learn about the reasons to prevent the death of plants.
Causes of infection
In order for fungal disputes to be activated, they need optimal conditions, namely: high temperature and humidity. So apple beds most often are dangerous in April and May, when the sun was still not dried to the end, and the weather is already warm enough. The air temperature contributes to infection with black cancer, the pathogenic fungus develops perfectly in the temperature range from 22 to 28 degrees of heat, and the humidity should be about 80%. In such conditions, malicious microorganisms are enough just 6 hours to ripen, after which they begin to hit the tree.
The reason for the infection of fruit plants is often low immunity, it is especially true for old gardens, which are not sufficiently careful. Such trees are weakened and can not independently confront any infection, especially cancer. The fungus easily penetrates the wood fabric and begins to multiply, after which it is capable of spreading all over the garden.
If you do not comply with the agrotechnical foundations, fruit trees can easily be infected with infection. We are talking about incorrect trimming, not enough high-quality processing of wounds, excessive branches of branches – all this contributes to the development of black cancer. The disease can lead to a damage to the garden pests, attracts other parasites that are able to completely destroy the potential harvest. If you do not care for the trees, moss and lichen will begin to grow on them, which stimulate the spread of infection, because they create optimal conditions for fungus. It should be noted that excessive care can also negatively affect the state of fruit plants: if you abuse feeders, substances will be accumulated in the soil, which will create a nutrient medium for fungal infection.
Incorrect landing is another cause of black cancer infection. If the plot is not large enough, and you decided to plant trees closely to each other, you will need to carefully monitor their condition and provide high-quality care.
Fruit can not be grown near the compost pits and in places with active decomposition of the organic.
Signs of emergence
To understand what you are dealing with, you need to get acquainted with the symptoms of the disease of the apple tree. Black Cancer looks different depending on its habitat. Many experts claim to recognize the fungal disease at an early stage quite not easy, so it is better to inspect the garden constantly to detect different damage.
Black Cancer can manifest itself on the crust. The wound is characterized by a purple-brown framing, which gradually begins to spread over the surface, after which it becomes black. If the disease progresses, stains turn into deep dents, the bark begins to flap and looks charred.
Thus, if the trunk has not turned completely, there is a chance to save a tree.
In the spring, when garden trees begin to flourish, the color becomes brown, after which it is deformed and dry out, it concerns the pestle and stamens. If we talk about the disease on the already matured tree, the fruits are infected for a week, after which dark stains are formed on the surface, which increase in the amount. Apple will begin shriveling and turns into “mummy”, becoming completely black.
If red-brown specks appeared on the leaves, which soon became gray, it means that the tree was infected with cancer. Black manifests either on the fruits or on the trunk. During the course of the disease, the number of such stains will only increase, and if you do not take action, the leaves will begin to die, and the tree will soon die. Large apple tree dies over two months.
How to treat apple trees?
If you have noticed a small raid on the crust, discovered spots on the leaves, you need to immediately begin the rescue operation. The treatment consists of several stages, and if we follow the recommendations, it will be much easier to deal with the disease.
This is an initial stage that plays an important role. Since one of the signs of the disease is the formation of spots on the leaves or raid on the crust, you will need to conduct a cleaning procedure. It is about sanitary processing not only affected by the infection of the tree, but also the whole garden. To do this, you need to collect already infected fruits and leaves with stains, crop branches that have been subject to the disease and destroy the vegetable garbage outside the garden.
It will take to treat the bark of the trunk and skeletal branches that are not yet affected by black cancer. After cleaning, it is important to influence all disputes that could have time to spread on the leaves and even soil. For this purpose, an antiseptic is designed, it is better to choose fungicides and preparations, which contains copper. In addition, it is important to handle the entire area using antifungal agents.
At this time, it is impossible to drag the earth, as you can damage the roots, which disputes immediately infect. It is better to break the soil slightly and process it with the same fungicides.
If we are not talking about strong infection, you can start with folk remedies that can also help cure apple trees from black cancer. For disinfection of the wound, salted water with iodine or soap solution is suitable, and the juice of fresh sorrel is also effective. After processing, the wound must be closed with a mixture of clay and a cowboard (1: 1), the thickness of the layer should be at least 10 cm. From time to time, the affected areas are wetted by “heteroacexin”, for this you will need a bucket of water and two tablets. As an insulating agent, nigrol and wax rosifers are perfectly suitable, which can be mixed with clay and smash thoroughly.
Garden Earth can help cope with black apple cancer – for this, the soil must be moistened, to pre-process with fungicides, after which all the cracks. This is a difficult way, because every time after the rain it will have to repeat the procedure.
Experienced gardeners resort to Garden Varu, which is applied to the damaged part of the tree, covered by a healthy bark.
Injection in the barrel
Perhaps this method of treatment is the most effective, if it comes to a difficult stage. Antibiotics are perfectly coping with infectious diseases, so they are in great demand. In specialized stores you can find “streptomycin”, which is injected as an injection. This event is recommended to conduct in vegetation. To do this, a small hole will be thrown in the trunk at the height of the meter from the ground (there should be no wound and affected areas nearby), the hose is inserted there and an antibiotic is introduced. For injections, specialists have developed a special system, 4% solution of the drug is introduced into the apple tree, after which the hole must be tightly close the plug. The procedure should be repeated with all branches, the thickness of which exceeds 15 cm. Injection will operate in diameter 3 m. Such therapy is better to repeat 5 times with breaks per week.
If you choose this method, then stripping with trimming trees is carried out after the procedure.
In order not to deal with black cancer in the late stage, and save the whole garden, it is better to take security measures that will help prevent the development of the disease. It is recommended to place an apple tree at a suitable place, namely: away from the compost pits where many organic fertilizers. Planting trees in areas where high humidity due to closely occurring groundwater is not recommended. The south side is also not suitable for the garden, since ultraviolet radiation can fall aslant and will help the fungal disease to develop. It is important to prevent sharp temperature differences that negatively affect the state of the bark, so the location of the future garden needs to be chosen carefully.
An important rule for any gardener is a regular sanitary trimming, during which all weak, patients and extra branches are removed, and the wounds are carefully processed and closed from wind and moisture. Any tree needs timely watering and high-quality feeding, one should not clog the territory of extra plants. An important stage in the care of fruit is the whirlwind at a height of two meters, which protects the apple orchard from insects and other pests. On the old trees, the bark begins to crack and depart from the trunk, so it is important to carry out cleaning to provide gas exchange, removing a dead fabric that is the perfect seatingman of fungal dispute.
Making listed actions must be done regularly, it is so possible to protect the garden with fruit trees not only from black cancer, but also from other diseases.
If you are just thinking to plant your own apple orchard, it is better to choose the right variety, which has resistance to a number of infectious diseases, including firing. In front of black cancer, such species as “Alva” and “Pairing” (summer variety), “Borovinka”, “Fridom” and “Autumn Joy”, as for winter apples – is “Jonathan”, “Resistant”, “Bolotovskaya” And “Harallson”.
Summing up, it is safe to say that the black cancer of an apple tree is not a harmless disease, at the first signs you need to start treatment without delay. If you use all the recommendations listed, do not neglect the rules of care and carefully process the plants, then you do not have to face such a serious problem.