Record popularity of cherries is due to the aroma and unique flavor of berries. In addition, the aesthetics of both the fruits and the plant plays both the latter role. Do not forget also about the variety of varieties known today. In principle, this culture is unpretentious. However, some nuances of cultivation of cherry in the garden is still worth learn. Otherwise, on a plentiful and high-quality harvest is unlikely to have to count on.
Features of cultivation
It is no secret that now in Russia the cherry trees grow almost on each country. In addition to the beautiful appearance of trees and bushes, as well as the taste of the berries, no less important role is also playing that this plant is a honey. Another advantage is the simplicity of cultivation of culture requiring relatively simple care. Despite the fact that the cherry grows in almost any climatic conditions, it is characterized by a record yield.
Abundant harvest is always the result of the right care, regardless of the features and varietal properties of the cherry. But, unfortunately, in some cases, even constant concern for the plant does not allow to achieve the desired results.
The cause of such troubles are mistakes allowed by gardeners when cultivating culture.
And one of the key moments will the correctness of the landing. In this context, it is necessary to highlight the following important points.
- At the stage of the material selection, it is recommended to give preference to varieties, which will be the most appropriate for specific climatic conditions. In parallel, attention should be emphasized on such indicators as frost resistance, yield and resistance to the negative impact of pests. Another key factor is pollinators. The absence of such trees in the immediate vicinity of the Cherry Garden often becomes the main reason for the fact that they are not formed by barriers, including during abundant flowering.
- When buying, all seedlings should carefully examine. Calculate on a rich crop can only be used by high-quality planting material.
- Of course, the problems associated with the fact that the cherry dumps the wound and badly fruit, arise and because of diseases. Taking into account a number of nuances, competent treatment of plants at different stages are required. Depending on the specific situations, the spraying can be carried out, for example, to the dissolution of the kidneys or on the so-called phase of pink bud.
When and where to plant?
Cherry landing is carried out in the spring so that young trees have enough time to root and subsequent full growth. An important factor in this case is the temperature necessary for good warming of the Earth on the site. At the same time, the landing is best to spend after sunset. Most gardeners prefer in autumn to harvest seedlings and invest them until spring fit into the ground.
The main task is to keep the material that appeared literally before in winter. This will require the following.
- Choose a place in the garden, where the snow with the onset of spring is preserved longer, and dig a hole there is a depth of 30-35 cm with a bias of 45 degrees.
- Saplings Place the root system towards the deepening.
- Sprinkle roots and a third of the soil barrels.
- Plentifully pole.
- Saplings to put pine branches so that the needles are outside, for effective protection against rodents.
- After falling out of snow, it is thrown onto the planting material with a layer from 30 cm to half a meter.
Soil for the landing of cherries in the garden is also prepared in the autumn months. It is important to take into account that the cherry loves good lighting, as well as a sample, drained sand and thin soil. If it is acidic or alkaline, then it will be necessary to scatter on the line of the lime or the dolomite flour (about 400 g per square meter) and switch to the depth of the bayonet.
It is important not to introduce organic fertilizers at the same time. It is strictly not recommended to plant culture in places with close groundwater, as well as in lowlands where water is possible.
At the preparatory stage, it will take care of the presence of high-quality planting material, as well as its safety until the right moment. One of the key seedlings criteria is their age. Optimum option – 2-year-old copies with a stramber of 0.65 m and trunks 2-2.5 cm in diameter. Best of all, the skeletal meshs are at least 0.6 m in length.
Pops for disembarking with a diameter and a depth of 0.8 and 0.5 m, respectively, digging in advance. Experienced gardeners advise it to do it approximately 6 months before transferring the planting material to the ground for a permanent place. If we are talking about the spring landing, then the wells are made in autumn. Those who prefer fruit trees to plant in the beginning of autumn, will have to take care of them no later than the beginning of the summer.
At the same time, the pita themselves are filled with a mixture of sand, humus, peat and fertilizer.
3-4 hours before disembarking the root system is placed in aquatic environment. This has a beneficial effect on the activation of the necessary biological processes. When identifying damaged areas or foci on the roots, they should be carefully cut off with a sharp tool.
From a mixture of fertilizer and fertile soil in the wells form a holmik, on which the roots of a seedling carefully. After the pit completely covered with soil. It is important to remember that the root cerv should be located in 5-7 cm above the ground level. If the material is planted with a closed root system, then the Mentioned Hill in the Lunka will not need. It is recommended to equip the drainage and nutritious layer.
How to land?
First of all, you should pay attention to the interval between seedlings. When landing several trees between them should be at least 3 meters. If we are talking about cross-pollinated trees, you will have to be placed in close proximity to each other from 4 varieties. Low tall and low individuals on the 3×3 and 2.5×2 m scheme, respectively. In situations with self-polishing plants, this rule does not make sense to apply.
Himself algorithm landing cherry looks like this.
- Remove the top layer of soil and prepare a mixture with the addition of humus.
- Add to substrate Woody wood (1 kg), potassium chloride (25 g) and superphosphate (40 g). If the seedlings are placed in clay soil, then you need to make a sand bucket.
- In the center of the well, knock the peg so that it is located 30-40 cm above the soil level.
- In the form of a cone pour the cooked soil.
- Seedling from the North side.
- Plant root system by hill.
- Gradually fall asleep the pit, neatly trambye land to eliminate emptiness.
At the final stage around the seedlings, it is necessary to form a well with a diameter of about 30 cm with a small roller out of the ground and pour into it a bucket of water. After a complete absorption of the neck of the root system of the seedling will be directly over the soil, it will be necessary to climb the coil zone by peat, by humus or sawdust. Will only sue a young tree to a peg.
Watering and feeding
Many novice gardeners are interested in how much the cherry can water at different stages of cultivation, and also how to fertilize it so that it gives good fruit. Watering culture is carried out so that in the immediate vicinity of the tree, the soil is sufficiently impregnated to a depth of 0.45 m. It is important to prevent unnecessary irrigation to not begin to rock.
The first time the young cherries are watered after the completion of flowering, combining this process with subcording. Next approach will be required during the crewing of fruits. Under each piece of fruit garden pour from 3 to 6 buckets.
It is worth noting that the volume in this case is determined by weather conditions in a specific period of time.
Young specimens who have not yet fruited, irrigated twice a month, and in heat conditions weekly. After all the leaves fall, plants are equipped with the so-called waterproofing watering. The purpose of such an agrotechnical event is that the soil moisturize to 80 cm well. As a result, the moisture supply required to increase the winter resistance is ensured. It is no secret that the moistened land is much slower free.
Organic fertilizers are required by cherry with periodicity once every 2-3 years. Apply such feeders, as a rule, in the autumn period. Also autumn ferture areas and minerals. Nitrogen fertilizers (nitrate ammonium and urea) are made at the rate of 15-20 and 10-15 g per “square”, respectively. Do it is necessary early spring, and also after the completion of flowering trees. It is important to remember that it is necessary to fertilize not only the rigorous circles, but the whole plot with cherry. Before making feeding it abundantly.
The first stage of such processing falls at the beginning of the spring period. Means Mart and the time of swelling. If you do not have time to make pruning in terms of the start of the downwardness, it is better to postpone it, because shorten branches can dry. In some cases, pruning and in summer, namely, immediately after collecting ripe berries for the formation of the crown. In the fall, the described activities should be carried out at the final stage of vegetation. Sanitary trimming, the purpose of which is to remove patients and damaged shoots, is carried out at any time.
Peprystone seedlings leave up to 6 strongest twigs. The rest of the shoots are removed “on the ring”, that is, without leaving hemp. At the same time, cuts must be carefully treated with Garden Wara. It is important that the remaining branches are directed in different directions and grew from the barrel with an interval of at least 10 cm.
Starting from the second year of the life of Cherries, when it is formated, they remove shoots and branches that grow inside the crown of the tree. Parallel cut outwards on the strain.
In situations with tree varieties, it is important to promote actively pulling up the branches. Otherwise, the harvest is significantly complicated. It is worth considering that such trees have new skeletal branches with such trees, which in an adult copy should be 12-15 pieces. If corruptible cherries grow in the garden plot, their shoots are required to cut up to 50 cm.
Special attention should be paid to the spring processing of cherry trees and bushes. As noted, the trimming is carried out before the start of the Softness. An exception in this case will be only spring after winter with strong and long-lasting frosts. It is important to immediately treat wounds, since the plant during this period is very painful tolerates the described procedures.
Autumn cherry cut up much less. The key point is that competent and timely processing allows you to increase yield. In parallel, it is possible to minimize the risk of developing infections, the treatment of which will require substantial costs, including temporary. Also extremely undesirable to leave a plant in winter with damaged and even more sick branches. The main task of the gardener when performing autumn trimming is the choice of the moment between the completion of the vegetation and the beginning of the first frost.
Preparation for winter
In the overwhelming majority of cases, an adult and actively fruiting the cherry tree can move the winter period. This in this case goes about difficult weather conditions involving strong, prolonged frosts. However, despite the unpretentiousness and endurance of culture, it will not be able to take care of the protection of the plant. Especially this component of the care is relevant for young.
It is important not to forget that the key point of preparation for winter is the processing of trunks. In the fall, their and skeletal branches need to shake lime with the addition of copper sulphate.
And one of the effective ways to protect Cherry from frosts is the shelter of the rolling circle with snow. Over the formed snowdrift will need to pour sawdust.
Processing against diseases and pests
In order to prevent diseases and in order to effectively deal with pests, modern gardeners successfully use a whole arsenal of chemical. And speech in this case goes about two main categories.
- Phytoncides – to prevent and treat diseases.
- Insecticides – to destroy the pests of all types.
With non-critical potential danger, there will be quite enough of the folk agents, tested. For example, with effective in the fight against caterpillars, beetles and other pests will be afraid of Paren.
With the onset of spring, it is obligatory to process the strains of the Bordeaux liquid. This approach allows not only to avoid sunburn. In parallel, insects are effectively destroyed in the crust. It is important to remember that during the cherry blossoms, treatment is not performed – in addition to harmful, insects can also die, which surroves trees and shrubs. The inevitable consequences of this will be a significant reduction in volumes and worsening the quality of the crop.
Taking into account the types of pests, the processing of cherry looks like this.
- Weevils – Spraying 10% carbofos solution in early spring. Folk remedy – decoction of smell chamomile.
- Ants – Near the tree or bush lay a rag impregnated with diesel or kerosene.
- Butterflies and flies – processing immediately after the completion of flowering with such means as “Inta-Vir”, “Carbofos”, “Fufanon”, “Lightning” and other.
- Wormies and caterpillars – After falling out the leaves of their burning together with the nests of pests. Spring spray plants with a weak (0.2%) solution of chlorofos. In order to combat the leaflet rosal before the kidneys dissolve, you can process the 6% oil emulsion. In addition, manufacturers offer a fairly wide range of chemicals.
The list of the most common diseases of the cherry includes:
- monilion and kokkkomikosis;
- Spotted buoya;
- root cancer;
- Rinch fruit;
- witch broom;
- Cherry mosaic;
Musture Cherry will allow timely processing.
In addition to the vapor (copper and iron), urea and burgundy fluid, the following means are used.
- “Horus” – Systemic fungicide with the ability to penetrate into young leaflets and characterized by the duration of action. Horus processing is high quality and effective prevention of dangerous fungi.
- “Phytosporin” – Modern microbiological preparation, preventing and struggling with bacterial and fungal diseases of the bone.
- “Trichopol” – antifungal agent, which spray plants several times per season.
Nuances of care in different periods
Predictably care for the cherry garden should consider certain nuances depending on the region. And we are primarily about climatic features. So to grow good, fruiting trees in the suburbs, you will need to make more effort than in the southern regions.
But even taking into account the fact that the culture under consideration does not require constant concern all year round, it is recommended to comply with the general rules. For example, with the cultivation of young, no fertilizer is required for the first 2-3 years. Care in such situations comes down to:
- shallow moisture of soil in the attractive zone;
- removing weeds;
- Combat with diseases and pests.
Fruit plants require great effort and time costs with regard to year time.
In the spring time, under the condition of rainy and cold weather, cherry trees can be sprayed with a solution of honey (1 tablespoon per liter of water). This is done to attract insects to pollinate. Soil loose several times per season. Before the kidneys start blooming, the cherry will need to trim. In parallel, the root piglets are removed, they are murdered with a compost or sawdust.
Every year in spring requires treatment of cherry from diseases and pests, so that the plants should not be treated. Before dissolving the kidney, it is recommended to treat plants with a 7% urea solution. This allows you to get rid of worms and other pests, safely overwhelmed in the crust, as well as soil. Parallel Cherry is fueled by nitrogen. It is important to process before the start of the flow process, and otherwise the optimal variant will be a 3% solution of copper sulfate or burglar liquid.
In this period, the main task of the gardener is to provide fruit trees, including cherry, sufficient nutrients and moisture. In parallel, it remains relevant effective protection against pests and diseases. But one of the most important points is watering, especially in hot weather.
Often the cherry in the summer months resets some marks. And as soon as it happens, it is required to make nitrogen feeding. After 3-4 weeks, fertilizers containing potassium and phosphorus will also be needed.
And, of course, the main event of the summer period is ripening and harvesting.
Autumn months – this is the period of introduction to the priority areas of cherry trees of mineral and organic fertilizers under the rescope. The depth of the latter for young and adults, fruiting trees should be 10 and 15-20 cm accordingly. Similar agrotechnical events are carried out after the start of the yellowing of foliage. The optimal option is a few days after a good rain or watering.
Another important component of autumn care is the spraying of plants with a 4% urea solution. Do not forget about waterproof irrigation as part of the preparation of trees to wintering. In October, it is recommended to place the rodent traps on the site. No less important will be the whores of the strains and the bases of skeletal branches. November – this is the time when we remove the fallen leaves and mulch the priority circles. The trunks of young people are covered with a pine male.