Blueberry is one of the few fruit crops that do not require special attention from gardener. However, the minimum care of this plant is still required, especially in the fall. This will allow culture better to prepare for winter and achieve a rich crop of delicious and fragrant berries for the next season.
Blueberry care at the autumn time is very important for full growth, development and active fruction of shrub next year. One of the most important events becomes trimming. If it does not pay enough attention to her, it can lead to a rapid reincarnation of culture into ordinary dichka.
With the onset of spring, a large number of young row appears – it takes the nutrients from the plant and weakens the culture. The thicance leads to the fact that the fruiting branches become thin, and this adversely affects the taste characteristics of the fruit.
In addition, the thick crown attracts a large number of fungi, insect pests and other parasites, so blueberries becomes a seating for dangerous infections.
Of course, cut patients, weak and injured branches are necessary throughout the entire season of vegetation. In the spring cut off the frozen shoots, in the summer they remove the extra pigment. And in the fall, special attention is paid to sanitary, as well as forming trimming.
Blueberry branches trimming for proper formation of a bush. These works need to be carried out after the completion of the fruiting and stopping. In the middle lane of Russia, this time falls on the second half of October.
At this stage, it is necessary to remove all branches thickening the crown. The spike zones at the same time are covered with garden borants – such a measure will protect the plants from the pathogenic microflora.
It is very important to complete the trimming to the first cold, otherwise, during frosts, the shrub may suffer.
Delete young pigs are already needed from the first year of the development of blueberries, as the root shoots grow during this time are taken away from the plant a lot of power. At the blueberries planted in the spring, in the autumn months you need to cut the entire summer pricing increase and young branches. After trimming, a seedling consisting of several direct columns with a height of 35-40 cm should remain, all side branches are also cut off.
Pruning adult plants is made according to the following scheme:
Horizontal shoots spill to the most powerful branch growing vertically;
Remove the shooting down and deep into the crown shoots;
cut off the tops of the branches spoiled by pests or cold;
Delets are also subject to all branches less than 30 cm long.
The shoots of adult plants are usually cut off for their rejuvenation. At this stage, it is cleaned by all non-pronomous old branches that do not give a crop, but at the same time they take a large share of useful macro and trace elements from the bush for their growth. After the rejuvenating trimming of new branches with the onset of spring are actively started into growth and give a big harvest.
In autumn time, any berry cultures require feeding. The task of making nutritional fertilizers during this period is to help blueberries to move the winter well and lay young kidneys for the subsequent vegetative season.
Blueberry need to fertilize from 2nd. In the autumn months, a good effect gives compositions with potassium and phosphorus, such a feeding significantly improves the taste of berries. At the same time, each bush is usually used by 50 g of superphosphate and potassium sulfate, a good result is given potassium monophosphate and sulfate potassium.
As an option, You can feed the bush culture ready mineral compositions, you can buy them in any store for gardeners and gardens. Preferences need to be given to drugs for heather plants – they are suitable not only for blueberries, but also for cranberries, viburnum, lingers, they are used to fertilize rhododendrons, hydrangeas and azaleas. They contain a balanced complex of minerals, as well as a soil acidifier.
For this culture, the following compositions are most in demand.
“Floroveit” – The drug is designed specifically for better fruiting blueberries, in addition to basic minerals, it contains copper, magnesium, zinc, as well as iron.
Bona Forte – composition for blueberries and many other forest berries. This is a preparation of prolonged action, it is enough to make once a year.
“Good power” – Suitable for blueberries and other berry shrubs.
In addition to feeding, autumn is very important to accommodate the soil. Neutral and alkaline substrates are not suitable for blueberries. It is best to develop at the pH at 4-5.
If the acidity parameters are exceeded, then blueberries will begin to root. Soil microorganisms, salts and minerals will not be available for it, because in an alkaline environment, the plants cease to absorb useful minerals.
As a result, all growth processes suspend and increases the risk of chlorosis, phytoofluorosis, black rot, stroke and other dangerous diseases.
For acidification of the soil, special solutions need to be made to the soil.
Based on acetic acid – 100 ml of vinegar 9% of the table is divorced in a bucket of water and consumed at the rate of 10 l per 3 m2 berry.
Based on citric acid – 1 h. L. Limondons dissolve 4 l warm water and spill a pre-moistened land of the rolling zone at the rate of 3 liters of diluted composition per 1 m2 of landing area.
Some gardeners use electrolyte for acid batteries or concentrated sulfuric acid. However, in the same case, it is first necessary to conduct a pH test to determine the exact dosage of drugs.
In everyday life, this is not the most convenient way, since it requires special knowledge and skills. If a little exceed the dosage, then the plant will die quickly.
Any plant is very important to mulch. This measure helps to reduce the growth of weeding herbs, preserving moisture in the ground and smoothing the jumps of temperatures. As a mulch, in an autumn time, the chopped bark of pine either is used or coniferous needles, straw and wood sawdust goes. The protective layer is placed in a thickness of 7-10 cm, each year it increases another 5 cm.
Alternatively, you can use fallen leaves. For the winter they spare and spring will start working as valuable fertilizers. If you use serarative cultures or beveled grass as a mulch, then the whole plant mass is pre-grinding. But the synthetic observer blueberry material is undesirable if the winter is warm – the roots of the plant will begin to rot.
With the onset of autumn, the number and volume of irrigation reduce. If rainy weather is held on the street, canceled at all. For watering, blueberries will suit the acid water from the pH at 4-5 units. The most effective solution obtained at the rate of 1 h. L. citric acid on water bucket.
2-3 weeks before the first frosts it is important to carry out moisture profitable irrigation, it will remove the roots from the freezing. Watering the berry is better with the help of a divider – it will prevent the substrate errox and the degradation of the roots. The amount of water should be so to fully feed the moisture layer of the soil by 40-45 cm. In an average plant at the age of 3-4 years will need 2 water buckets.
Depending on regional weather features, the time of such watering varies. In the central and middle lane, most often he falls on the second half of September, in the south of Russia – for the first decade of October. In the northern regions, moisture profitable watering is better to spend at the very beginning of the first autumn month.
Processing against diseases and pests
Like any other fruit-berry culture, blueberries are often infected with mushrooms and parasites. They can cause serious berry diseases.
Cancer stem – The most common enemy of blueberries, which affects the plants, regardless of the natural climatic zones and varietal characteristics of the plant. The causative agent is turning the escape and completely destroys the bark.
Drying stem – manifests itself in the appearance of convex spots on the stems.
Double spotting leaves – In this case, dark gray spots with burgundy edging appear on sheet plates.
Anthracnose – Causes a lot of brown stains, they cover the leaves, stems and even berries. This fungus does not allow to keep the crop.
The activities of pathogens also often lead to the root of the roots of the stem and phytoophluorosis. Most of these diseases give themselves to know already early in spring, at temperatures from 0 to 10 degrees, as soon as snow comes. At this time, the plant is still inactively, it does not enter the growing season and therefore practically does not resist.
In order not to give pests a single chance, in the fall after the fallout of the leaves it is necessary to process the berry for preventing lesions. This requires systemic drugs penetrating into the cells – the highest efficiency has the “Sorrow”.
If, during the growing season, the plant faced with spots of different types, then contact fungicides should be used before leaving for wintering – They eliminate mushrooms and disputes on the surface. For the prevention of fungal, bacterial and viral infections of leaves, root system and trunk at the autumn time, burglar liquid, iron or copper sipop.
Blueberry can be attributed to cold-resistant cultures, it easily transfers frost to -20 degrees. However, if the region is characterized by severe winters, it is best to insulate bushes. Besides, Blueberry survival is significantly reduced if the winter is an impersonal. Therefore, in the central and northern regions, experienced gardeners advise the winter shelter always.
Warming produce phasate.
Before the onset of frosts, shoots neatly straighten and flex to the ground. So that they do not rose, they fasten them with twine, or fix with special studs.
As soon as the first cold come, the blueberry immediately needs to be covered with burlap or spunbond. It is impossible to take the film for this, because in such conditions the plant will chant and become susceptible to fungal infections.
When the first snow falls, it is necessary to throw the maximum on top of the bush. This will create additional insulation, and in addition, will provide a plant with the necessary moisture in spring time.
Preparation for Winter in different regions
In Russia, the most optimal place to grow strawberries is considered to be the Moscow region, although it is often quite harsh. Therefore, it is not worth neglected with warm shelter. The bushes are necessarily flex to the soil, covered with a canvas, or throw a pine sap.
In the Urals and Siberia use specialized blueberry varieties adapted for cold territories. It is best to plant hybrid varieties – “Canadian nectan”, as well as “Wonderful” or “Taiga Beauty”. Bushes of this blueberry can grow to 80-90 cm, their distinguishes high frost resistance.
All preparatory work in September-October is carried out in type order. There shelter for wintering is optional, it will be enough to close the bush with snow, especially since in these places the sediment falls quite abundantly.
The climate of the Volga region is not suitable for cultivation of blueberries. Therefore, they are satisfied with imported berries, and the shrubs themselves are not planted.
Despite the fact that blueberries – a very unpretentious plant in the care of the plant, many dackets care for him incorrectly. It lowers total yields, and worsens the nutritional characteristics of fruits.
We list the most common mistakes when careing this culture in the country.
Excessive polis– leads to a lagarment of soil. The result of such irrigation is the lack of oxygen, it is tested roots and therefore often freeze in winter.
Exceeding the maximum concentration of acetic or citric acid. This causes the death of the mushroom mushroom, which is important for the full absorption of all nutrient macro and trace elements.
Excessive thickening crown or bush landing in the shade – causes a deterioration in the taste of fruits and lowers the resistance of the plant to infections.
Refusal of nutritional fertilizers – leads to a deterioration in the decorative characteristics of shrubs, grinding berries and a decrease in fruiting volumes.
Use as nutrient feeding organic substances – it significantly reduces yield.
Incorrect loosening – liquidation of the substrate for too much depth causes damage to the root system of culture, which is located close to the soil. Therefore, autumn loosening is allowed no more than 2-3 cm.