How many people presenting the berries of strawberries, remember summer. Everyone wants to feel their fragrance. But not each of us knows that strawberries is by and large garden strawberries. Strawberries, or strawberry (translation – close to earth), was known for many times. To learn more detailed information about the wonderful berry, read the following information.
If you compare garden garden with strawberries, then you must say that A strawberry bush looks much more powerful, and the flowers are located above the leaves. However Strawberry garden and strawberries are considered the same plant. The above-mentioned representative of the flora is considered very popular, as it is characterized by high yield, earlyness, the profitability of the cultivation and T. D. Possesses therapeutic properties and grows in any climatic conditions. People grow it everywhere: in the garden, the dacha, a household plot. Properties Above the described berries are also invaluable. She is rich in its biochemical composition.
The plant first appeared in Asia, and only then spread around the world. It has the Latin name Fragária × Ananássa (or homemakers garden) – long-term culture of the family of pink. Let us dwell on the characteristics and botanical description of this berry. The plant has a urine root system. Large half of the roots are located on the surface, the rest can go to the ground by 30-100 cm. A part that is above the Earth has such a structure: 1 Type – these are shortened annual shoots, 2 Type is a mustache (with which the plant breeds), 3 Type – these are shoots (which are flowers).
Specialists share strawberries into groups: homemakers garden, strawberries Forest, strawberries Musky or strawberry, strawberries Virgin, strawberries Chilean. However, people cultivate those varieties that belong to the strawberry garden. To date, the breeders have a large number of sorts of strawberry garden, and only about 65 of them are made to the State Register. This plant is sensitive to the duration of the daylight.
The optimal temperature for the full development of strawberries oscillates in the range of 23-25 degrees.
In order not to make a mistake in the selection, you need to rely on such components: taste, yield, disease resistance, berries. If we talk about the large production of berries, then important: yield, the possibility of transportation, attractiveness. However, it is necessary to also take into account the timing of ripening.
Early grades is May and June. List them.
- “Clery”. This variety is valued by manufacturers for sweet fruits and endurance. This species was created in Italy. You can get about 2 kilograms from the bush.
- “Octave” It has massive bushes and is considered a very profitable variety due to fruiting.
- The variety “Olvia” is derived in Ukraine. It is believed that this strawberry dacha, although for mass production it also fits. Fruits large and beautiful.
Associated varieties start fruit from about June 10. List them.
- Roxana. Variety led in Italy. It is distinguished by high yield, powerful bushes and friendly maturation.
- “Marmalade” – this is an Italian variety. Berries are very beautiful, delicious. With 1 hectare you can collect about 16 tons.
- “Florence” Located in the UK. Berries have a commodity look, good taste and beauty.
Late varieties have the following names.
- “Zenith” – this is a hybrid, and it is distinguished by good transportability and high fourth. So the whole berry looks always fresh on the counter.
- “Pegasus” has resistant to disease and pests. Well tolerate temperature differences. Berries have a very pleasant taste.
- “Lord” has large fruits and has a high yield.
- “Great Britain” – Pretty promising variety, as it has a high yield.
You still need to choose those varieties that differ in the duration of fruiting. So, we list the most popular in this segment.
- Grade “Albion” has high yield properties. From the bush is going to 3 kg. Fruit from June to late autumn.
- “Elan” – Dutch variety. It can be grown in open ground. “Elan” has splashing bushes and very good berries.
- “Yellow Miracle” – from the bush is going to 3 kg.
- “Diamond” Requires careful care, but this variety is characterized by high yield. Berries on the bushes have an unusual creamy-yellow color.
- San Andreas – The grade is distinguished by juice of berries and tenderness.
- Variety “Queen Elizabeth” Differs in the size and aroma of berries, as well as high yield.
Now consider ordinary varieties.
- “Alba” considered a descendant of “Albion”. Characterized by aroma of berries and excellent yield.
- Grade “Honey” Gives high density berries. It is grown both lovers and large strawberry manufacturers.
- Sort “Queen” possesses very large and beautiful berries.
If we consider in the regions, then for the middle band, such varieties are suitable as “shelf” (resistant to drought and unpretentious), “Garland” (characterized by high yield and fruit density). In the North-West, such varieties are mainly planted as “Cesan” (can be grown on the beds, a balcony and in greenhouse), “Maryshka” (undemanding in care), Torpeda (fruits of an elongated form). In the south, popular: “Crimean repair” (brings fruits 2 times a season), “Bogota” (transportable, in the open soil receive about 1 kg from the bush).
In the Urals and in Siberia, such persistent varieties are grown as “Maria” (possesses cold-resistance and excellent tastes), “amulet” (mid-length variety, resistant to infections).
It is necessary to take into account all the nuances in order to get high strawberry yields. Consider them more carefully.
The best is considered the term from 10 to 15 May. However, the open soil is best moved to strawberries in July – August (it is necessary to consider that this recommendation refers to traditional varieties). In plants that are planted at this time, the root system develops well, and a large number of floral kidney appears. Summer landing is a guarantee of a good harvest next year. By the way, this period of disembarkation saves cash, since it does not need to carefully care for plants: to protect against disease and pests, fertilizers.
Spring landing is also distinguished by its advantages:
- You can choose any variety with a root root system;
- the soil do not need to moisturize.
The only minus of the spring landing is that you will not get a high harvest, and you will also carry expenses for further watering seedlings and their processing. Autumn planting of strawberries is September. If you put the bushes and wipe them very well, your plants will warm up to winter and the next year will give a crop.
Strawberry seedlings love solar places. They must be protected from wind and frost. Strawberries Necaprift and can grow almost everywhere where there is a more or less acceptable soil. Nevertheless, a delicious berry still “loves” heavy and drained soils. Very dry and sandy sections of the Earth will be destructive. Swampy places are also not suitable for planting this plant, since the root system will not be able to fully breathe.
The soil must be neutral or a little acidic (pH should be about 7.).
To properly put strawberries, you need to prepare the soil, so remove weeds from the future plantation. Especially dangerous for those under consideration of berry bushes, such weed herbs like thistle, drinking, hat. If perennial weeds with a good root system grow on the site, then use a special tool to destroy them. Next, act below described.
Looking out strawberry bushes is needed either in the evening or cloudy weather. When you plan a concrete bush, you should not too shuffle its base. However, to leave on the surface most of it is also not worth it, otherwise your plant will either dry, or rotates. After disembarking, abundantly moisturize your strawberries. You can add a preparation “Barrier” (4 tablespoons on the water bucket). Need to pour 1 cup under the root of the 1st plant.
Early varieties and medieval views are located 15-20 cm from each other. Stand in 50 cm. After you collect a crop, one plant should transplant. So you will free the place in the garden for the full development of the remaining bushes. Late varieties should be planted at a distance of 20 cm and leave 50 cm between rows. How to collect harvest, every second bush need to dig and transplant.
Features of care
These features consist by and large from the weeding and irrigation. If we talk about concrete care, then you need to note: it starts already with landing. Note that the correctly planted bush will be good fruit. Therefore, having planted it, straighten the roots carefully. Then spend mulching on the bed with straw. And then act in this way:
- If you landed the plants in the spring, then they must be pronounced by the Sun;
- In young plants, tear off the extra flowers so that they quickly gain strength;
- Water regularly your seedlings with water heated in the sun;
- If you enjoy a strawberry when landing, it can not be done in the summer, cut off the mustache on young plants, otherwise they will weaken the main bush.
Consider how to care for the berry in the subsequent time.
- In one place, strawberry bushes should not be more than five years. During this time in Earth and on the bushes themselves, pathogenic microflora may develop. This means that after the expiration of the above period, old plants will begin to root and die.
- After melting snow, you need to feed your berry bushes. Next feeding need to spend in mid-May, during flowering. Note: Do not be fond of nitrogen fertilizers, otherwise the leaves of the plant will grow strongly, but you will not get berries.
- Do not rush to clean the bushes in early spring from the old foliage. Foliage can still protect strawberries from bright sun and frost.
- So that the berries did not lie on the ground, and the leaves of the plant did not deteriorate, pull a durable thread along the bed. So you can keep on the weight and blooms, and berries, and leaves.
- Carefully water the bushes, When they are fruit, so as not to wet the berries, otherwise they will finish rot.
- Autumn abundantly Moisturize strawberries.
- In August, it is necessary to handle bushes: Cut the old leaves, remove the remains of the coloring and t. D. Also cut the mustache, otherwise the uterine bushes will spend their strength on them. Then the next year of a large harvest you will not get.
- Spend small loosening Around bushes.
- The very first sockets from the mustache Rail to new, well-processed beds.
- Stitch For the winter, strawberries or byproof material.
It is carried out in spring: in March or April. If we talk about northern latitudes, then in this case the reproduction is carried out in June. Autumn reproduction of strawberries are usually held in September. Strawberries can be diluted with mustache. Mustache is one of the popular breeding methods of berries. For productivity, choose the most persistent and most fruitful 3-year-old bushes. From each bush you can take only 2-3 sockets with good roots. Strengthen this seating in well-processed and loose ground.
Note that the strawberries are multiplied by seeds. Small seeds need to be decomposed on the surface of the moisturized substrate and slightly press them into it. For convenience, take tweezers or toothpick.
Diseases and pests
Let’s start with disease.
- The bushes fade leaves, and he dies. Changing the problem with the help of spraying by the “quadris” or “methadoxil”.
- Puffy dew is caused by mushroom disputes. Berries are covered with friable raid. You can eliminate the problem with the help of drugs “Signum”, “Domark”.
- Gray rot or white rot is caused by fungus. You can eliminate the problem with the help of preparations “Barrier”, “Phytosporin”.
- Buuray spotty Leaf is also caused by the development of fungus. Bordeaux liquid is used to prevent the disease.
- Fusariosisand ramularize Also provoked fungus. Phytosporin and 1% Bordeaux liquid help against him.
- Croplight is a virus. She slows down the growth of the stalks of the plant. To correct the situation, adopt the plants and increase their immunity.
Strawberries can also be attacked by pests.
- Nematodes are worms. They suck from plants juices. They will destroy “Aktellik”.
- Earth mite and cobweb tick Also suck juices at the plant. They are also destroyed by “AcTellica” or “Ortos”.
- Pest Malino-Strawberry (It has a size of 2-3 mm) and strawberry leaf outputs of buds and leaves in plants. They are destroyed insecticides.
- Strawberry and Potnica Destroy with a soap solution.
- Major beetle larvae eat plant roots. If such pests appeared, then burst the soil and process the roots “Aktar”.
- Slug, wasps and beetles eat berries. They can be eliminated if scattering the discharge drug “Metaldehyde”.