Without such a spicy ingredient, like pepper, no kitchen can do in the world. In one form or another, red or black pepper in a different quantity is present in a huge list of a variety of dishes. At the same time there are many names, including bitter, sharp, chili and other.
It is interesting to find out the reason why they are so burning, as well as know everything you need about their severity. It is worth noting that far from everyone knows about the existence of a special scale, which determines the main characteristic of the product under consideration in the appropriate units of measurement.
How and what is measured?
Initially, it should be noted that the first person measured the degree of burning acute peppers, and to be more accurate, then the sharp substance in it, the Chemist and Pharmacist Wilbur Lincoln Skoville became. It is in honor of this American scientist and a corresponding scale was named, in which the level of sharpness is displayed. And makes pepper to such an extent the burning substance capsaicin. In its pure form he can actually leave burn on the skin and does not wash off with water. It is important to notice that the specified substance is widely used in the production of medical drugs of outdoor action, as well as gas cans and even special ship paint. By the way, his name capsaicin comes from the Greek word “Capoto”, which means “bite”. Naturally, the concentration of this substance directly determines the burning of peppers.
Capsaicin itself, which is an alkaloid, has a direct impact on certain thermistors. They, in turn, are sent to the brain signals indicating a sharp and substantial increase in temperature. As a result, when contacting the burning substance, the human body believes that he begins to burn. But in fact, nothing like this happens. It turns out that in this way the brain is simply misleading.
However, this does not mean that excessively acute food does not represent potential health hazards.
Mera Zhuzti is ESE (SHU), that is, the blocks of the scale of the scale. At one time, this scientist suggested using the share of the already described capsaicine in their composition when determining the severity of peppers. At the same time, analyzing the features and results of the first studies in this direction, it is worth focusing on the following important points.
- The standard (a kind of starting point) was adopted by Bulgarian, that is, sweet pepper.
- Experienced sample insisted on an ethyl alcohol solution.
- The resulting pepper tincture was diluted with sweet water until the feeling of the feeling of burning. At the same time, the corresponding taste should have been confirmed at least three of the five Assistants Wilbur Skovail.
- The total volume of water used to dilute the tincture was divided into shares in proportion to the last.
At the final stage, the obtained results were entered into the table. It is important to consider. That 1 of the mentioned parts of water corresponded to 1 Esche.
In this way, the scientist was able to explore all the types of peppers available at that time. The result of the work done was the preparation of an acute scale based on data recorded in the tables. The method of determining the level of zhuchi was later improved by Mikhail Color, which in his research successfully used chromatography. However, even after such updating of classifiers in the title of acuity scale, only the name of the pioneer remains, that is, Skovailla.
It is worth noting that in the absence of a particular product, or the dish of sharp peppers is useless to search in the described scale its parameters. By the way, in this category of food, as it is not strange, includes Vasabi, as well as “Gloder”, “Spark” and many other sauces and seasonings. The fact is that they are prepared on the basis of Luke, garlic, mustard or horseradish. That is, the pepper is not present, and, therefore, capsaicin.
It is important to take into account that if a person has receptors not accustomed to explicit sharpness, it is extremely undesirable to add food to food only with an increased concentration of burning agents. This indicator in dishes will correctly adjust with softer pepper species. It is also important to remember that sweet milk, ice cream and fatty foods will help to neutralize the harness in the mouth.
The most burning peppers on the scale of the Skovail
Taking into account the sharpness indicators displayed in the table, spend the classification of sharp vegetables. So in 1912, according to the results of the work of the Skoville, the ranking of the most burning peppers headed Habaro with 577,000 ESHS. Later, the plants belonging to the relevant family were investigated using specialized equipment. Parallel constantly expanded the list of varieties. Thus, copies with indicators superior to 100,000 Esche began to be added to the group. It is worth noting that such peppers are usually used in the production of self-defense and insecticide.
The most popular representatives of the ratings of the most acute include the following varieties:
- Thai “bird eye”;
- Zhugoea Jamaica;
However, not these common peppers are not worthy of attention. It is worth noting that for the honorary title of acute and burning constantly there is a rather active struggle. So, breeders are constantly working on the removal of varieties, rising higher in a kind of tournament table, the role of which is assigned to the Skovail scale. By the way, often the leaders of such ratings fall into the legendary Book of Records Guinness, which automatically increases demand for them and record sales.
The current current list of the top 10 of the most burning peppers, starting with the leader, can be represented as follows.
- Pepper with the mysterious name “X”, whose burning is a record 3,180,000 units on the scale of the Skovylla. Since 2019, he is considered to be the most acute in the world. According to experts, in the near future his championship and honorable rank is not threatened. Created this “monster” Ed Carry, who is the only owner of seeds of this culture, which is pepper lanterns. A scientist in collaboration with a limited circle of partners produces sauces and other products based on their burning creation.
- “Dragon breath” – Pepper with a sharpness of 2.5 million ESS, created by Neil Price with the participation of University of Nottingham. A variety variety was developed as a source of the main active component for ointments with an antiseptic effect. Fully overwhelmed fruits have orange-red tint and miniature sizes (no more nail).
- “Carolina Riper” – Pepper with charm in the redistribution of 2.3 million ESS in the period from 2013 to 2019 was the leader of the rating of the most sharp and even found himself in the Guinness Book of Records. An unprepared person is not recommended to use it in a fresh form, since the concentration of capsaicin in this pepper is very high.
- “Trinidad Moraga” – This type of burning vegetable with indicators from 1.2 to 2 million Esha can be found according to the name in Trinidad and the Moraga region. His main feature is that the sharpness is not felt immediately after the fruit is silent, but over time. At the same time, the corresponding sensations are preserved for a very long time.
- “7 Pot Dougla” – The sharpness rate of this instance varies in the range from 1.853 to 2 million units on the scale of the Skovylla. By the way, the name of all the pepper is obliged to give the ability of only one pots (POT). It differs in spicy, fruit, sweetish taste, but at the same time try it in the raw form is not recommended. It is believed that the most sharp peppers must be red. This variety is an exception, since its ripe, wrinkled fruits have a dark brown coloring.
- “Naga Morich” – Pepper, which is also referred to as the “Ghost” or “Ghost”, has a burning at 1 to 1.5 million ESSH. Almost 12 years (from 1994 to 2006), this variety was the title of the most acute in the world. Differs on the sour-sweet taste with a small shade of smoked and well suited for the preparation of various meat dishes.
- “Trinidad Scorpio Butch-T” – Pepper, called in honor of his creator of the Taylor Scientist, has a burning, varying from 800,000 to 1,463,700 units in the Skovail. Before testing the burning effect of the pods, you can have time to feel their fruit taste.
- Naga Viper – Under the sharpness of 900 thousand to 1 382 118 ESSH in 2011, this pretty rare variety of pepper from a foggy albion was recognized as burning. Brought it as a result of crossing several species at once during cross-pollination. In taste you can see sweetness and fruit notes, and pepper acuity manifests itself quite slowly, but felt at the same time. Sorts can often be found as part of various sharp sauces.
- “1 Pot Brain Strain” – A variety characterized by the hardware ranging from 1 to 1.35 million ESS, was revealed 11 years ago by American experts in North Carolina. Wrinkling pods have an unusual, intricate shape. When cutting fruits having a citrus fragrance, you can see capsaicin oil.
- “Dorset Naga” – A variety of the pepper “Naga Morich” described above, having a burning from 876 to 970 thousand units on the scale of the Skovylla. From the “relative” this variety is characterized by a sweet taste, in which fruit and even some floral notes are noticeable.
Another distinctive feature is a long graduation of acute. In the fresh form and as a component of sauces can bring to tears.
How to reduce sharpness?
Often for one reason or another have to deal with excessive content of sharp components in different dishes. Surride with burning pepper can even the most experienced culinary. However, in such situations should not immediately despair, and the creation itself will be written off in the category of hopelessly spoiled. There are a number of fairly effective techniques that will allow to significantly reduce the sharpness. That’s what you can try.
- Cheese the cooked dish. Neutralize acute peppers can help a spoon of vinegar or lemon juice. In this case, it is very important to know the measure and observe the proportions, since the line between “Savior” and “all spoiled” is much thinner than it seems. By the way, alternative lemon juice are fresh tomatoes capable of rendering a similar action.
- Add sour cream, just 2 tablespoons of which can make the taste of food is much softer. There are situations where this product may simply be at hand. In this case, sour cream can be replaced with natural yogurt.
- Moderately increase the share of other ingredients of dishes. But it is worth considering that this option of salvation of the latter is relevant when using simple recipes.
- Prepare in addition to the main dish of vegetable side dish. Tomatoes, cucumbers and other vegetables, as part of which there is a large amount of water, as well as greens, will help soften the action of the burning matter.
- Add a teaspoon of sugar with a few drops of table vinegar. This method of rescue dish is relevant in those situations where it happened a little sharper than I would like to.
In addition to the above, it is worth noting that in some situations experienced cooks advise not to follow strictly and blindly recipe. In particular, it is recommended to try prepared pepper before adding.
It is important here to remember that all the products described the degree of burning is different. By the way, with a similar phenomenon, you can face, even thoring two pods from one bush.
Unfortunately, many underestimate the potential danger of sharp peppers. But it is important to remember that the most vulnerable areas are the face and fingertips, where the largest number of sensitive receptors is located. And the key point is that when skin contact with a capaicin, the human body automatically reacts as to burn.
Taking into account the above, when cooking dishes, the list of ingredients of which includes burning peppers, it is strongly recommended to use rubber gloves. Parallel to avoid touching the face.
It is important to remember that capsaicin is most concentrated in grains and skin. After completion of work with such sharp products, it is necessary to thoroughly wash your hands and all used kitchen utensils.
If pepper gets into highly vulnerable parts of the body, it is necessary to immediately take action.
- With a strong sludge of the skin of the hands, put out “fire” is not so difficult. Neutralize an irritating factor in the form of actions of capsaicin will help any dairy products that are at hand. Best use milk, kefir, as well as sour cream and yogurt.
- Entering acute pepper in the eyes – this is a very unpleasant thing, But it does not follow in such situations overly panic. It is initially recommended to make a compress based on milk or vegetable oil. Then it is necessary to rinse the eyes to be rich enough and equip painkillers. After such first-aid measures, you should seek medical attention.
- In situations where a person ate too burning pepper, It is important to immediately forget about water and any cool beverages. Drink this sharp product does not make any sense. The most effective means will be milk included in its composition proteins and fats effectively neutralize capsaicin.
It is worth focusing on one unique moment. The fact is that with regular contact with the products containing the described burning agent, the sensitivity of the respective receptors is significantly reduced. Over time, the skin will be much calmer to respond to contact with sharp pepper. Nowadays, there are no problems in order to determine the degree of the burning of one or another variety of pepper. To do this, it is enough to use the Skovail table.
However, it is important to remember that even with a relatively low level of acute, it is necessary to arrange culinary experiments with maximum caution. And also do not forget about elementary safety rules.