Berries of strawberries are very popular among gardeners. They are sweet and very tasty. Strawberry you can just eat in food, and use for cooking various dishes or canning. Therefore, they grow it almost at every summer cottage.
Strawberry is a popular perennial plant that belongs to the Pink Family. Her life form – herbs, class – Dichomotor, Rod – Strawberry. The structure of the bush is very simple. It consists of a root system, leaves, mustaches, bloom and a small annual horn. Berry is distributed both in Europe and in Asia. Cultural plant is characterized by a small size. Small and low bushes in the end of spring are covered with white or light pink flowers. Over time, fruits are tied on these bushes. As the berries ripening become red and large. Fruits covered with small yellow seeds. The taste of fruit can be both sweet and slightly acidic. It depends on the selection of the variety, as well as from where the strawberry is growing.
Strawberry is removable and unreasonable. The repair plant can be fruit up to three times during the season. For the first time, the berries of this group appear on the bushes in June. Re-fruit strawberry starts in the middle of summer. In some cases, the berries on the bushes appear in early September. In addition to the botanical description, it is worth talking to how much strawberry berries are useful for human health. These sweet red fruits help normalize pressure, reduce the risk of stroke, strengthen teeth and bones.
Strawberry is useful for both adults and children. It can be given to everyone who has no allergies on it.
What it is – berry or nut?
Most people call strawberry fruits berries. But this is not entirely true. In Botanic, the type of plants with juicy flesh and seeds inside. So strawberry is officially not a berry. Fruit growing on the bushes is a multi-case. After all, on its surface after ripening there are small seeds or dry nuts. But in the people of the strawberries still continue to call berries.
History of appearance
Strawberry is a plant that has a rather interesting origin. Wild bushes grew in Italy more than two thousand years ago. But in those days they were valued for other reasons. Strawberries loved for her medicinal properties. For her delicious fruits, people drew attention only in the XVIII century. It happened in America. It was there that the first full-fledged varieties appeared by crossing different types of berries.
Over time, this culture began to appear in Europe. From there she fell into Russia. To fully grow strawberries began only in the XIX century. The most popular were varieties from America. Now strawberries are growing almost all over the world. This plant is adapted to different types of climate. So it feels well everywhere.
What is the difference from “Victoria”?
Many gardeners who want to start growing this plant in themselves on the plot, are interested in how the usual garden strawberry is different from the Berry “Victoria”. The difference lies in several major moments.
- Size bushes. Strawberry bushes are much more. In addition, they grow up. At the same time, the “Victoria” bushes are usually lying on Earth.
- Place disembarking. To get a good vintage strawberry, it is recommended to plant on a sunny plot. Berries “Victoria” grow better in the shade.
- Appearance of berries. Another important difference is the size of the fruit. Have strawberries they are not very big and have a reddished or pink shade. Berries “Victoria” Dark and large.
Otherwise these plants are similar. Therefore, gardeners can land on their plot as an ordinary strawberry and “Victoria”.
Review of species and varieties
When choosing plants for your site, it is worth paying attention to the fact that there are several types of strawberries. Some of them are fruitful once in the season. Such berries are divided into early and late varieties. Others fruit several times over the summer and are removable. It should be remembered that it is much easier to care for ordinary strawberries.
Beginning gardery Pick up suitable plants for your site will help the list of the most popular varieties of strawberries.
- “Alba”. This kind was withdrawn in Italy. This variety is popular among those who are engaged in growing strawberries on an industrial scale. It is resistant to diseases, as well as to the impacts of pests. Garden strawberry berries have a big size and look beautiful. Fruits are well suited for canning or freezing.
- “Rosana”. Motherland of this variety – Ukraine. Fruits on the bushes appear very early. You can enjoy their taste at the very beginning of summer. Berries have a pleasant taste and aroma. It is convenient to store and transport them from place to place.
- “Evangelina”. This is another early strawberry grade. Fruits that appear on the bushes have a pleasant taste and light red. They look very beautiful. It should also be noted that the bushes of strawberries are winter-hardy.
- “Symphony”. This strawberry variety refers to the average. It is appreciated for good yield, high life expectancy and pleasant taste. All these characteristics make strawberries suitable for landing even in small areas.
- “Great Britain”. This late grade appeared relatively recently. You can collect a large amount of delicious and fragrant berries with bushes. The plant is unpretentious in care, but poorly tolerates drought.
Choosing any of these varieties, a person can count on a good harvest of berries.
Dates of landing
So that the berries are good fruit, they are important to plant on their plot on time. This can be done both in the spring and in the fall. It all depends on the level of employment of the gardeners. Autumn strawberry landing can last from mid-August and to the second half of September. After landing, the bushes are rush pretty quickly. Therefore, next year, the gardener can collect a good harvest.
Spring planting work is carried out after the establishment of warm weather. This is usually happening in mid-April. In the cold regions, the bushes in the open soil are planted at the end of May. When planting strawberries, it is important to consider the features of the local climate, as well as focus on the weather forecast.
Most often the bushes of strawberries land right into the outdoor ground. This can be done in two ways.
- Single road. This method of landing is suitable for small areas. In this way, strawberries can be planted not only on the beds, but also in the garden, between the trees. Distance between different plants should be at least 15 centimeters.
- Two Strong. In this way, strawberries are most often planted in summer. The distance between rows of strawberries is about 30 centimeters, between individual plants – 20 centimeters. Growing berries in this way, you can count on a greater harvest.
There are more interesting strawberry growing methods.
- In bags. This method is suitable for plant landing on a small area. High-quality soil falls asleep in narrow polyethylene bags. Next, the soil is disinfected, and after sitting in it seedlings. For this, small holes are done in bags, and small pits are digging in the slots. Grow strawberries in this way can be both indoors and open-air.
- Under agrovolokno. This method of growing strawberries allows to increase its yield, as well as significantly reduce the time costs of care for it. Strawberries sitting on a plot covered with dense agriculture with special holes. There it quickly matures and is not subjected to attacks of pests or diseases.
- In pots. The vertical method of growing berries is now popular among summer residents. Bushes can be planted not only in pots, but also in bottles or even in pipes. Care for such plants is very simple. So they grow quickly and delight people with a good harvest.
Choose which way to plant strawberries, it is worth focusing on your own capabilities, as well as the size of the site.
To strawberries fit well and pleased with an excellent harvest, it is important to stick to simple rules when landing it.
- Observe crop turning. Strawberries are best putting out on the place where Siderats grew earlier. It is not recommended to plant berries where there were beets, garlic or onions.
- Proper choose a plot. It should be well lit. When choosing a site, preference should be given to places with light sand soil.
- Select high-quality saplings. They must be strong and healthy. Buy seedlings best in proven places. Do not save on their quality.
- Prepare a plot in advance. The soil must be switched in advance. In the soil you need to make manure or humus. Some gardeners prefer to use special fertilizers intended for strawberries or strawberries. Prepared Plot need to be left alone for a while.
- Dig deep holes. Rhizome must be fully placed in the hole. In this case, its edges will not be closed.
The wells with the bushes need to immediately pour out the earth, and then unscrew.
In the future, young plants also need special care.
All bushes should be regularly water. The lack of water leads to the fact that the roots of the plants begin to stop quickly. It is not worthwhile to water strawberry beds too often. This can lead to the appearance on plants rot.
In the middle strawberry watering time in 11-12 days. In hot weather it makes more often. Watering the bushes is only in the morning. So on the leaves there will be no burns. Pour water should be under the root, trying not to hurt the inflorescences and foliage.
In the first year after disembarking strawberries, it is usually not faded. After all, when planting plants in the wells, a large number of fertilizers are placed. In the future, the bushes feed three times a year. In the spring, after removal of excess foliage in the soil, mineral fertilizers or infusion of a cowboy are brought, divorced in a ratio of 1 to 10. Under each bush usually pour half liters of fluid.
During the formation of fruits, the plant feeds ashes or infusion of chicken litter. This contributes to an increase in the number of berries. For the August feeding plants you can use urea. After such feeding, the plot is watered with plenty of water.
Strawberries can grow in one place for about 3-4 years. After that, its yield is noticeably declining. Because of this plant has to transfer to a new site. For this you should always choose only healthy and strong bushes.
You can transplant strawberries both in the spring and at the end of the summer. To begin with, they dig out of the ground. After that, the roots of the plants are placed in a solution of clay and manure. Then strawberries are planted in the usual way. After transplanting, the bushes are watered, and then mulched.
Adult plants also need trimming. Gudders are advised to regularly examine the beds and remove all dried or spots covered with spots and mustache. Do it stands either early in the morning, or after sunset. For trimming is usually used acute secateurs. He gently removes all the bushes, not traumating them at the same time.
To increase the number of berries on the plot, strawberries can be attempting independently. Make it several main ways.
One of the most popular methods is the breeding of strawberry mustache. For work it is worth choosing two year old or annual bushes. Preference usually give plants that are good fruit. From bushes need to separate large outlets. They must be put in the seaside pots and neatly pinch. On one bush, only the largest mustache should remain. Thin and weakened need to remove.
In the middle of summer, when young leaves will appear on the outlet, the remaining mustache also need to trim. The rosette itself at this time must be transplanted to a new place. Immediately after landing it is necessary to pour.
This method is suitable for breeding reproduction. For division used healthy bushes at the age of 2-3 years. They should have a well-developed root system. The bush can be digging and divided both in the spring and in the fall. It is important that on each individual part there was a socket and strong roots. After dividing the bush immediately landed on a new site.
This is the most difficult way to breeding strawberries. It consists of several stages.
- In the second half of the summer it is necessary to collect the most ripe and large berries.
- With them you need to neatly cut the flesh with seeds. Next, all this needs to wipe through the gauze and dried in the sun.
- Separating the seeds, they must be folded into a paper bag. You can only start a landing at the end of winter. At this time they need to soak in melt water. It needs to be regularly changed.
- A week later you can start landing seeds. First you need to prepare a comfortable container. On its bottom is placed a layer of drainage, as well as humus. The fertile soil is stacked on top.
- Next, the land should be moistened. On the surface of the soil you need to make small grooves. Seeds are placed in them. Capacity should be covered with glass or food film, and then transfer to a warm place. Container with seeds must be regularly ventilated and water.
- After the emergence of the first seedlings, seedlings must be transferred to a bright place. After education on them, young leaves of the plant can be divert.
- After the second dive, the sprouts are allowed to plant on a permanent place of growth.
If you do everything right, strawberries are good.
Diseases and pests
Gardening is important to pay attention to the protection of plants from diseases and pests. Most often, strawberries suffers from diseases such as fruit or gray rot, brown or white spotty, as well as jaundice. You can protect your beds from these diseases, regularly processing them with prophylactic drugs. It is made early in the spring, as well as after harvesting. To prevent the propagation of disease, it is also important to observe the crop rotation and regularly examine your site.
The most common insects that can harm the bushes are nematodes, sheets, weevils, as well as dark clutches. Protect the site from these pests will also help timely preventive treatment. Usually for this used burglar liquid or copper cune. In the spring and autumn, the soil on the beds is also recommended to loose. This is done in order to destroy the eggs of pests, as well as those creatures that plan to spend in warm soil.
Strawberry is a popular plant. Many interesting facts are connected with it. We give only some of them.
- Berries can be used to prepare a large number of dishes. They are well combined not only with desserts, but also with meat dishes.
- Strawberries can be even diabetics.
- From fresh fruits you can do face masks. They allow you to whiten the skin and fight with acne scars.
- Strawberry is a natural aphrodisiac. Therefore, it is often included in the dishes menu, which are prepared for romantic dinners.
In general, the cultivation of strawberries is not a very difficult process. Therefore, having studied all its features, try to get a good harvest of berries can even a novice gardener.