All about gooseberries

Gooseberry – one of the most common fruit crops. You can find it on each garden and summer cottage. In our review, we will get acquainted with this plant, its life forms, we will give the classification of the main representatives and tell about the rules of agrotechnology.

All about gooseberries

All about gooseberries

What it is?

The gooseberry family consists of two births, which are a total of about 200 varieties. This plant got the greatest spread in the mountains of Central and South America, as well as in the moderately climatic zones of the northern hemisphere. The main varieties of gooseberry include red, white, black and golden currants, as well as an ordinary gooseberry – it is about him that. Rod gooseberries unites about 50 varieties.

Ordinary gooseberry are also called European and rejected. Belongs to the genus of the currants, his homeland is considered Western Europe and the territory of North Africa. In a wild form in the natural habitat, it is found in the south of Europe, in Central Asia, in the Caucasus, in North America. Botanical description of the structure of the forest gooseberry gave a scientist Jean Ruele back in 1536 – it was then he got widespread in Europe.

All about gooseberries

All about gooseberries

Already by the XVII century, the gooseberry became one of the most popular cultures in the countries of the Old World, he received special distribution in England and even considered the informal symbol of this country.

This led to a burst of breeding activities, its result was the appearance of a large number of fortifications of the gooseberry. By the beginning of the XIX century, there were already several hundred. American scientists picked up this relay, they were able to achieve the removal of hybrid types, resistant to mildew and some other fungal diseases. Nowadays, the gooseberry is grown in almost all countries of the world.

All about gooseberries

All about gooseberries

What looks like and where it grows?

The gooseberry is a small shrub growing up to 1.2 m. It is distinguished by gray-brown, peeling from the stalk of the bark, as well as spikes of sheet origin. Spiky needles are located on young shoots.

Cushion leaves, have a heart-shaped or ovoid shape, length 5-6 cm. Each sheet has from 3 to 5 blades, stupid teeth are noticeable around the edge. Shades dull.

All about gooseberries

Favorite plant, greenish or reddish flowers. In the middle lane of Russia, bloom begins in May. Fruits are berries of a simple oval or spherical shape, the average length is -10-15 mm. Some varieties under favorable conditions can produce fruit to 40 mm. Berries can be bare or covered with solid bristles, visually noticeably marked the housing of white, green, yellow or red colors. Depending on the natural conditions, ripening occurs from June to August.

Gooseberry berries have sour and sweet taste, juicy flesh. They are distinguished by exceptional utility – the composition includes valuable trace elements, tannins, vitamins A and C, as well as organic acids.

This is a self-free plant, so it will be fruitful even if only one bush grows on the whole site. Life expectation reaches 15 years, the peak of the yield falls at age 4-9 years.

All about gooseberries

All about gooseberries

The group of the most popular varieties include:

  • Grossular – plenty of fruitful grade, the mass of one berry is 5-9 g. This gooseberry grade is characterized by resistance to fungal and bacterial diseases. A bush grows up to 1 m, tolerates frost well.
  • Kolobok – Shrub tall up to 1.5 m, on branches are single spines. The variety is large, the mass of one berry is 7-8 g. Under all the rules of agricultural engineering from one bush, you can collect up to 7 kg of juicy delicious berries. It is characterized by resistance to mildew, winter hardiness average.
  • Malachite – This variety allows you to collect up to 7 kg of crop from each bush. Taste characteristics are high, sweet fruits, with severe acid.
  • Russian – one of the earliest types of gooseberry, fruiting abundant. From one bush you can collect 5-6 kg of fruits.
  • Ural Emerald – weakly spreaded average bush. Yield reaches 6 kg of fruits from one bush. Differs in high winter hardiness, adapted for cultivation in Siberia.
  • Russian yellow – The average splashing bush, can be collected from each plant to 4-5 kg ​​of juicy sour sweet berries. Suitable for growing in the Urals and in the northwestern parts of our country.

All about gooseberries

All about gooseberries

All about gooseberries

Landing

Despite the fact that the gooseberry is a relative of black currant, he is more unpretentious to the soil. This culture is well adapting to a variety of substrates – sampling, thin, black eaves, and even sandy and severe clay. The plant can not develop only in acidic, wetlands, cold and highly apodoline lands.

Nevertheless, to achieve maximum yield, It is best to plant a gooseberry on loose, drained areas. Culture is needed well lit, ventilated places.

It is advisable to avoid low-rise and places with an elevated groundwater level.

All about gooseberries

Timing

Most often, the gooseberry planted in autumn time. This will allow the young chiston to the winter to take care and well root. The landing is produced in the second half of September-First Decade of October, depending on the weather and climatic conditions. It is important that no less than a month remains to the first frosts.

At daytime temperatures, 10-15 degrees roots are actively deepened in the soil. If the weather forecasters promise premature frosts, then the gooseberry landing is better to postpone until springtime. Otherwise, the young plant will not have time to take care and die in winter.

In the spring time, landing produce immediately after melting of snow. It is best to do this in the period when the earth warms up, but the Software has not yet begun. If you neglect the recommended time, then the bush will be weak. On a good harvest in this case, you can not count on.

As a rule, in the warm southern regions, disembarks are produced in March, in the cold northern – in the second half of April.

All about gooseberries

All about gooseberries

Technology

In order for a young seedling well to adapt in a new place, it must comply with the following requirements:

  • The root system must have at least three skeletal roots with a length of 20-30 cm;
  • In the aboveground part there should be at least 2-3 strong branches with a length of 30 cm;
  • Saplings should not contain traces of diseases, rot and mechanical damage.

When choosing plants with an open root system, preference must be given to seedlings without leaves (with the exception of the top). When choosing a bush with closed roots, on the contrary, the trunks must be limp.

Soil must be weakly acid or neutral. If the ground is acidic, before planting it is necessary to make a dolomite flour or limestone at the rate of 40 g per square meter. Before planing the Earth, the ground is perfect, purified from weeding herbs, disinfected by a solution of potassium permanganate and pour.

All about gooseberries

Prepare wells better in 2-3 weeks before planning – this will allow the earth to seek and avoid the appearance of aircraft. Optimal pits – 50 cm in depth and 60 cm in width. It should be placed on the bottom of the grains or crushed stone as a drainage.

2/3 wells fall asleep with fertilizers, the greatest effect gives a mixture of rewind manure, peat, ash and superphosphate.

When planning several plants, form the landing wells so that the distance between them was at least 1 m.

Immediately before planning, the roots of the gooseberry should be withstanding in the “Kornin” solution or any other growth stimulator. Young seedlings are placed in a hole at a low angle so that the root neck is located below the soil level. During the landing, it is necessary to straighten all the roots. The earth falls asleep with parts, each layer slightly tamper. After that, it will only remain to form earthy sides and pour under the young bush of water bucket.

All about gooseberries

How to grow?

Caring for the gooseberry does not represent much difficulty.

Podkord

Every spring gooseberry must be picked up by organic – it can be humus, manure or compost. It is placed in the rolling circle from the calculation of 1 fertilizer bucket for each square meter and leaving. Works are produced at the renal dissipation stage. In addition, each shrub is made 50-55 g of urea or ammonium nitrate, as well as 20-30 g of fertilizers containing potassium and phosphorus.

At the stage of formation, the plantation is necessary to shed with dung alive or solutions of finished mineral fertilizers – Selitera or ammonium sulfate.

A good effect gives a mixture of 4 kg of manure and 200 g of ashes divided into water bucket. The resulting Cashitz insist 5-7 hours, diluted with water twice and watered bushes. Work is carried out in the evening or in cloudy weather, the earth must be pre-moistened. Feeding repeat after 1.5-2 weeks. Total from the beginning of the vegetation until the ripening of fruit gooseberries requires 2-3 processing.

In the autumn months of nitrogen fertilizers need to be avoided. They stimulate vegetation, as a result, the plant will go into growth and die during the first frosts. At this stage, it is better to make a double superphosphate or potash salter.

All about gooseberries

All about gooseberries

Trimming

The most important stage of agrotechnology is its trimming. In the first years of the life of a young plant, it is aimed at forming a bush. For this, the perennial branches in half shorten and remove the main part of the root row.

Starting from 4 years, pruning is used to eliminate thickens. At this stage, all incorrect growing, dry, weakened and sick shoots are completely cut out. The main share of the harvest is formed on branches at the age of 3-6, so older shoots can be cut without any rest.

Forming is carried out in early spring to the dissolution of the kidneys or in the fall after dropping the leaves. Some gardeners practice crushing green shoots in the summer. They cut up the top and leave 5-7 leaves on each branch.

It is believed that this method contributes to the cultivation of larger fruits.

All about gooseberries

Watering

The gooseberry needs moisture. Without sufficient moisturizing the berries minor, their taste characteristics deteriorate and reduced yield. In dry weather landing, it is necessary to abundantly water at the stage of growth of young shoots and the formation of uncens, as well as during the ripening period of berries. Once the fruits become soft – watering suspend that the berries can dial the necessary sugar.

In October, it is necessary to perform abundant moisture profitable watering. For this, each bush is made by 3-5 vector of water. This will allow the root system better to prepare for winter frosts. To preserve this moisture, plants in the attractive zone cover mulch.

All about gooseberries

Diseases and pests

Fungal, bacterial and viral infections have the most destructive impact on the harvest. Most often, the gooseberry faces the following diseases:

  • Anthracnose – fungal infection that affects not only the gooseberry, but also raspberry, currants and some other cultures. The spread of fungus contribute to the thickening of landings and increased humidity. The first signs of the disease becomes the appearance on the sheets of brown spots, followed by the deformation of the leaves and their falling. To save the plant, produce its spraying burglar liquid or copper vitriol. At the flowering stage on the bucket of water take 700 g of the drug. After the completion of flowering, the dosage is reduced by 3 times.
  • Septoriasis – This disease is manifested in the form of brown spots. Over time, bright bayma appears on their edges, the affected fabrics are brighten. Such plants require the processing of burgundy liquid, copper vigorous or “nitrafen”. The greatest effect gives preventive spraying to the dissolution of the kidneys.
  • Spherosek – more known as American powdery dew. This is one of the most dangerous fungal infections, it is manifested in spring time. The leaves of the gooseberry are covered with a mossy white bloom, in the absence of treatment, shoots are twisted and dried quickly.
  • This mushroom is winter not only on the leaves, but also on the shoots, so it’s very difficult to get rid of it. Fight with him need burgundy liquid. In the spring time, the prophylactic purposes of the tips should shed hot water.
  • Mosaic – a dangerous viral infection spread through insects. The first signs of infection is the yellow drawing on the streaks. Soon the leaves are minced, become deformed and shoots suspend in growth. Treatment of mosaic does not exist, so it is best to get rid of such bushes and burn. To avoid attack, early spring, even before the advent of the kidneys, it is advisable to spray shrub insecticides.

All about gooseberries

All about gooseberries

    In addition to diseases, the gooseberries can threaten insect pests.

    • Currant glass – A small butterfly resembling the wasp. At the branches of the gooseberry, she puts off her eggs and caterpillars appear after 10 days. They penetrate directly into the core of the shoots and thereby disturbing all physiological processes in green tissues of the plant. To fight insect, it is necessary to regularly carry out sanitary trimming with the destruction of all affected fragments. In the spring time, prior to the beginning of the Software, the preventive treatment with the preparations “Iskra M”, “Cemifos” or “Fufanon”. At the stage of growth and ripening of berries, folk remedies helps to struggle with glassware – Infusions of acutely smelling herbs (pyzhma, wormwood or garlic).
    • Fireman – This butterfly makes a masonry on urins inside inflorescences. Caterpillar and fruit appeared from egg eggs in the shortest possible time. Already in mid-June, they are transformed into the pupae and sit in the soil for wintering. At the first appearance of the caterpillars, it is necessary to process “lepyocydom” from the calculation of 5-6 tablets per 1 liter of water. After 7-10 days, processing repeat. A good result gives a solution “Fufanon”, in addition to the fire, he at the same time neutralizes the peelers.
    • Escape Tla – This parasite is justified on the tops of young shoots with whole colonies, sucking the life juices from them. To avoid lesions, early in the spring it is necessary to make preventive treatment with a bordrian liquid solution. Warm ash works against tri, with a strong lesion, the preparations “Aktara”, “Roviikurt”, “Fovoks” use. However, it is possible to apply them only before the formation of uncess.
    • Gooseberry Pill – This insect resembles a fly, may have black, red or yellow shades. Makes masonry on leaves. All infected areas are subject to destruction and burning. At the revelation stage, the kidney disclosure and after flowering it is necessary to manually assemble the caterpillars, and then carry out processing insecticides. To prevent the defeat, during the spring loosening into the ground, you can make a mixture of ground pepper, dry mustard and ashs taken in equal shares. On the processing of 1 plants you need 5 st. L. Raw.

    All about gooseberries

    All about gooseberries

    Harvesting

    The gooseberry refers to summer berries, so the fertility collection is usually produced in July-early August. Berries grow and ripen almost at the same time, usually fruiting takes the whole month. It should be noted that the berries do not appear, even when fully maturity is reached. From one bush collect up to 8 kg.

    The gooseberry has two main stages of ripeness. The first – technical, comes 2 weeks earlier. In this case, the fruits grow to the maximum sizes typical of a certain variety, but remain green. On one of the sides, the presence of a yellowish or pink shade is allowed. Rigid skin, but at the same time sugars have already accumulated in the pulp.

    Such berries are usually used to prepare compotes, jam or jam. Fruits at the stage of technical ripeness are well withstanding the transport, they do not impenet and do not crack on the road. However, keep them, expecting that they will reach the final ripeness at home – already after a few days they will begin to deteriorate.

    All about gooseberries

    At the stage of full ripeness, the fruits acquire a characteristic varietal shade – yellowish, pink or purple. Berries become sweet and slightly softer. At this time, the taste characteristics of the fruits are extremely high, so the ripe gooseberry can be found in the cheese or overboard. This berry can be preserved, but to transport without damage to the crop will not be released.

    Everyone who engaged in the gorge assembly knows how difficult it is. Even if you are growing a bush without spikes, it does not mean that they are not. Most likely, the number of spines is minimal, the spikes are always available. Therefore, before assembling berries you need to take care of protection – it is advisable to use garden gloves and put clothes with long sleeves.

    Collect berries one. Of course, it will slow down the harvesting process. But skin covers will remain intact.

    All about gooseberries

    Usage in landscape design

    Gooseberry bushes are often used in landscape design. They are undemanding in care and very beautiful. Most often, culture includes solitator. In this case, the bushes are planting on lawns or lawns for a single way, which allows you to make a note of diversity in the landscape and get rid of monotony.

    From the gooseberry it turns out a good live fence. True, it is better to use it exclusively for internal zoning. Do not use the gooseberry for the fencing of the territory outside the road. From low-speed species you can form borders, in this case the plant will need a regular haircut.

    The gooseberry is widely used when creating decorative compositions along with flowers. In addition, shrubs are often used to mask communications – wells, pipes and storage places for building materials.

    All about gooseberries

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