Wood is a building material, the demand of which is very high. And this despite the presence of a large number of analogues in the market, which can replace it. Its popularity is explained easily – the tree is a natural and environmentally friendly material.
But despite this, wood has disadvantages. Among them, you can highlight exposure to fire, mold, insects. To avoid such negative influence, the material is impregnated with special substances – antiseptics. Let’s try to figure out which there are antiseptics for wood, and how can you make them.
Features and destination
Consider what is antiseptation. So called the process of impregnation of wood by various chemicals that can be preserved inside. The fact is that wood, in its essence, consists of two essential components – lignin and cellulose. Lignin has a developed structure of a multidimensional type and has quite high compressive strength. Cellulose is a polymer having a linear structure. It is responsible for the flexibility of the material.
Given the environmental friendliness of the tree, in the process of its development, it from inorganic forms the organic, and after its death, the fabric is processed by saprophytes. In fact, it is a fungus. They feed on the fatty fibers of wood and transform them in a mineral substance.
At the same time, such organisms identify special enzymes and build up mycelium under certain conditions. Usually they are woodworking or wood-cutting.
The first category in principle simply gives the tree to any color and too serious destructive impact on the material does not have. Although this is a sign that the material may have more serious problems and suffer from rotting. But the second category can destroy the wood completely, transforming it into humus or, in general, dulk.
As a rule, mold and moisture fungus appear. When it is too much, it forms a comfortable environment for the emergence of new microorganisms.
And just to protect against destructive impact of various microorganisms, insect pests and aggressive natural factors and need antiseptic impregnation. It should be applied on all logging stages and when processing for construction purposes. The form and proportion of the required substance of this type may vary depending on the type of lumber and wood species from which they are made.
It should be said that bioprotection for the material under consideration may be in the form of impregnation or substance, which creates a protective type on the surface. There are also unbearable antiseptic substances for wood, reliably protecting material and buildings from it without the need for further staining.
In addition, there are other types of funds under consideration, which are used for boards and sawn timber, which have already been infected.
Description of species
It should be said that there is a fairly large number of different kinds of antiseptics that differ not only in the composition, but also on the effect they have on a tree. In this regard, this category of substances can be divided into the following groups:
in the use segment;
according to the application method;
According to the degree of efficiency;
We will try to consider in more detail each of them.
According to the composition
By type of substances that were used when creating biozochildren for lumber, the antiseptic may relate to one of the following categories.
Based on water. Such are usually applied in preventive purposes. That is, they are usually applied to the surface that it will not come into contact with water. Naturally, we should not forget that after applying the material should dry. Sometimes after processing wood can crack and even modify.
- Oilly based. They are used when protection against water contact is needed. And when permanent protection required. Such substances have their own minuses. The main things can be called a very persistent unpleasant smell, as well as serious flammability. Their use also changes the color of the material. Most often to this category include any acrylic option.
- Based on the organic. They are often used to process the mentioned materials not only outside, but also in the buildings themselves. Their use allows you to form a thin film that completely covers the tree. It is she who gives it water-repellent characteristics and significantly improves adhesion.
- Combined type. Such a concentrate combines various properties. The combined antiseptic gives not only the protection of the biotype, but also gives the resistance to the effects of fire. This can be called fire-fighting anti-antiseptic.
In terms of application
For this criterion, there are two large groups of substances for wood.
For indoor work. After use, the processed material receives a film, which prevents the evaporation of toxic substances when entering into the air. This allows you to protect wood without harm to human health. We add that this category of substances is stable, and the processed materials do not require constant processing annually. But depending on the direction of application of the premises, the types of biomoshtics may vary. If indoors are often hot and humid, it is better to choose solutions for parillas. To make a faithful selection of material, you should get acquainted with the accompanying documentation before purchase. It must necessarily indicate that a particular solution is safe for humans and nature.
For external work. Such an antiseptic paint for external work will be an excellent solution, because wood outside buildings will experience a permanent destructive impact of natural factors. So, such substances should be deep penetration, difficult and have a strengtheky effect. They have a characteristic unpleasant odor, which usually disappears after the material drying. Usually it is that the smell disappears 30-60 days after applying. These substances and high hydrophobia are distinguished, strong resistance to ultraviolet radiation, as well as complete unsuitability of use in buildings. Usually they are divided into such groups:
compositions, deeply penetrating into the material, which is called impregnations;
finish coatings that protect timber by forming a thin film;
Combined or mixed – they usually provide several protective effects at once.
According to the method of application
Another criterion for which antiseptics may vary – application method. Consider each of them.
With superficial application. Here you will need a brush, roller, special pump or paintopult. And you can also use the capillary technique and diffusion.
With deep applying. In this case, the timber is completely immersed in a solution that can be hot or cold. With high-quality impregnation, everything will depend on wood. This also includes the method of processing in high-pressure autoclave using vacuuming.
It should be added that the dry tree is better to handle organic or aqueous antiseptic. True, some will be inconvenient due to poor clutch. If the wood is raw, then it just needs to be treated with antiseptic or soak.
By degree of efficiency
Each type of biomoshtics is used to combat various problems that can be characteristic of the material under consideration. There are substances that are used for affected materials. The degree of lesion can be different:
Easy when traces of lesion almost no;
average when traces are very insignificant;
Strong when the material is very amazed mold or fungus.
Each case requires the use of special stores. But if we talk about the degree of efficiency, this indicator is conditional, because in principle, all means are aimed at providing a reliable protection against pest protection and minimizing the risk of material damage.
The last criterion in which you can divide the types of biozochetics for wood – functionality. Among the problems that can resolve antiseptics can be called:
the use of low-quality insulation;
Not on time applied biosis on the sawn timber;
violation of material storage conditions;
exposure to water on wood;
Storage of sawn timber with bad ventilating or its complete absence.
In addition, most of the substances under consideration has an action of a directional nature: restores the color, increases the resistance to the effects of fire, corrects the harm that has been applied by insects and microorganisms.
Rating of the best manufacturers
Now we give a small top list of manufacturers of the materials under consideration for woodworking. If we talk about fire-resistant antiseptics, the most interesting can be called Pirilax-Lux. It is produced in Russia. There are no such toxic substances like fluoride and methyl alcohol. It can be used both inside and outdoors. This is a wonderful fully-cutting wood antiseptic, which can be applied to process various types of wood. Usually it is applied in several layers. It is distinguished by viscosity, due to which it is not required to dilute.
The advantage will be the possibility of applying under negative temperature. The minus is the absence of a UV filter, due to what a couple in a couple of years old, which was processed, will begin to darken, and therefore it will be necessary to use a toning analog.
Another representative of this group – “Sezhes Ognabio Prof”. This is the domestic product. Used for processing boiler rooms and gives wood flame retardant properties. It is not afraid of temperature differences and is very quickly absorbed, which allows you to give the surface of the shine. Has a color mahogany or sometimes red. Service life – 20 years. There is no smell.
The composition will quickly dry, though it is distinguished by high expenses.
If we talk about substances for outdoor work, you should mention Wood Protect. It has good mud – and water-repellent characteristics. Made on acrylic-alkyd basis. Used to handle hard and coniferous wood. This lesser composition emphasizes the structure of wood, and therefore it is used almost everywhere, except for floors and parquet. This material is fully safe and meets all international standards. In addition, when applying does not forms drops. The only minus – long dries.
Another antiseptic of this type – Pinotex EXT. Has white or translucent color. It is also used for outdoor work. It contains additives to combat mold and blue. Wood treated with such composition will be resistant to atmospheric factors. Absorbed quickly and forms a good film.
Product consumption will depend on the category of wood.
If we talk about antiseptics for internal works, you should call “Master Azure”. Tinting composition of a matte type based on acrylic, which protects wood and gives her beautiful color. Films do not form, perfectly absorbed and focuses on the structure of the tree. The composition produces in the finished form. Smell does not have and can serve up to 2 years. Dries in just 1 day, which is an excellent indicator.
Another analogue – Belinka Lasur from the famous Slovenian producer of varnishes and paints. There is a whole line with 17 different shades, including green. It can be applied in three layers. At the same time, the top will not create protection film. This is possible due to the good penetration of impregnation into the sawn timber. Belinka Lasur made of pigments, alkyd-type resins, substances of water repellent type and organic solvents. It is easy to apply, forms a matte coating, and also very well falls from the first layer.
The only disadvantage is a sharp unpleasant smell.
What antiseptic choose?
When choosing an antiseptic agent, several aspects should be taken into account.
Purpose. There are a number of rather highly specialized substances designed to solve a specific problem: improving water-repellent characteristics, mold fighting, increasing refractory properties. But there are universal solutions that improve several properties of the material at once. Most often bought them.
The degree of penetrating ability in the structure of the material. There are impregnation on this criterion:
Surface, they cover the material from above and penetrate into it a maximum of 0.3 centimeters, and the deep – to the depth of 1 centimeter.
Protective Coating Time. Depending on the whole range of factors, the validity period of the substance may vary in the range of 2-7 years. Under the action of aggressive destructive factors, the coating will gradually lose its characteristics. Therefore, manufacturers’ statements about the durability of the coverage for 30 years – not true.
Features Operation. The most significant can be called:
- Consumption rate. This indicator will depend on how economical consumption per 1 m2 substance will be. Usually the norm is indicated by calculating the application of 1 layer. Most often it varies in the range of 180-260 grams per meter square. For biomoshtics and flame retardants, the values will be in the range of 350-600 grams per meter square. Best to calculate the amount in advance. This is important if the scope of work is great. To do this right, it is necessary to calculate the surface area for processing in the route meters.
- Washing. Usually, on packing with a solution, you can find the appropriate note: in – washed, HV – unbearable, LV – Lightweight, TV – hard-made.
- Form release. Antiseptic for wood can be different – ranging from dry mix and varnish, ending with emulsion or powder.
In addition to these moments, you should pay attention to other points: corrosion activity, wood colors, which has already been impregnated, active substances in the composition, as well as the possibility of tinting.
Important will be the manufacturer of the product. After all, the more famous to the brand, the more its products will be better. The most recognized in this segment can be called:
Dufa Wood Protect.
Last important criterion – decorative coating compatibility. If colorless varnishes or color paint are applied to defense, then it is necessary to ask whether the selected antiseptic is compatible with such paint materials.
How to make it yourself?
Make such a mix yourself can be different ways. We give two of them. In the first case, the basis will serve such material as bitumen, as well as gasoline or diesel fuel, which will need to be diluted. It should be said that when purchasing gasoline on a gas station, you should use a metal container in order not to be afraid that static electricity can cause its fire.
And also need to have at hand:
Metal container for heating bitumen;
stops for fixing the container over fire;
Metal blade for mixing solution.
The process of creating a solution looks like this:
The container is filled with bitumen;
It is placed over fire;
It should be heated to the complete transformation of bitumen in a liquid mass, stirring so that there are no lumps;
When the substance is weakless, remove from the fire and give a little to cool;
When this happens, add to the container of gasoline with small portions to avoid dissolution.
The proportions of gasoline and bitumen will depend on the initial state of the latter. An important indicator will be the preservation of the composition, which turned out, fluidity at a temperature of about 19 degrees. The share of gasoline should be approximately 20-30%. But here it is necessary to take into account the viscosity of the bitumen, so the indicator may vary.
It is impossible to overheating the mixture, but also warm it too slowly – too. Use the composition immediately after cooking, as it quickly loses its properties. And it is required to do it, of course, on the street.
The second method will be implemented on the basis of the creation of a water salt solution from certain proportions of the corresponding materials.
To increase the activity of water catalytic type, it should be heated.
If we talk about proportions, then, besides water and salt, it will take copper sipop or iron, as well as the fluorine sodium. And then there may be variations.
When the material is impregnated, a weak solution of water and fluoride will be required. The 10-liter bucket requires 50-400 grams. If the designs are inside the building, the solution may be weaker, and if the outside is stronger. For a visual understanding of the application of the substance, you can add 10 grams of manganese.
For processing lumber, which will be in contact with the ground, apply solutions on sulfates, that is, the vitrios. On the bucket of water should be added 1-2 kilograms. In this case, so that everything happens, wood should be dry, and impregnation – long.
For cooking, hot water, stirrer and tank. The composition can be applied only after cooling and settling, after loading it into the sprayer.
Wood processing rules
When applying the means of the antiseptic group, it is necessary to comply with safety regulations. In addition, there are substances that should be applied once at some time. Another important point – the drug should be changed every time the microorganisms are simply not accustomed to it and did not acquire immunity.
It is important that modern antiseptics do not have a strong smell, and often to obtain the desired effect they need to be applied several times.
And also before carrying out work, you should make sure of dryness and purity of wood. If necessary, it can be cleaned with a scraper or solvent.
If the tree is wet or freezing, then the processing should be refused.
Before starting the surface processing, you must first apply the soil-antiseptic to damaged areas and places where it occurred. And then on all the rest.
With damp wood, the tinting antiseptic can be applied to the paint, brush or roller. Another important point – to destroy insects, use substances on an alcohol basis. They are injected into the worms of the syringe, after which the timber treatment is carried out.
How to make an antiseptic with your own hands, look in the video.