The rational placement of goods in warehouses is ensured by using special rack systems. From the material of this article you will learn what they represent, what are the ones are. In addition, we will celebrate the main nuances of their choice.
Warehouse shelving systems are huge organizers with the most rational placement of various objects. They differ in constructive performance, capacity, carrying capacity.
Depending on this, there are different dimensions, storage methods. Solve the problem of lack of space. Can be located on the floor and to the ceiling. In some cases, complex two- and three-storey structures with staircase spans and passages resemble.
Made mostly from durable metal, taking into account the framework of a particular storage. Also in production we use wood, polycarbonate and other polymers.
There are collapsible, equipped with various elements and fasteners. Refer to industrial warehouse systems. They can be transported and reinstalled, they are key equipment necessary for a complete set of warehouse.
Compared with ordinary shelving furniture more durable and practical. Come traditional and with reinforced shelves. Provide free access to each unit of goods. Different target destination.
Have the possibility of adapting under the individual characteristics of the warehouse. Have the adjustment of the shelf height, provide installation or removal of unnecessary sections for storage.
Requirements for placement
To organize the optimal environment and the effective performance of the repository, the equipment according to safety rules. It is necessary to accelerate the loading and unloading activities, storage of huge batches of cargo.
According to the GOST standards, the recommended distance between metal structures should be at least 80 cm. For a more convenient passage, passing between systems during planning is projected by a greater distance.
Placement of racks takes into account not only one-sided, but also two-sided movement. The main transport passage is located opposite the entrance. Its value corresponds to the double width of the loader and a distance of 90 cm.
Minimum parameters are correlated with storage gate. When placing racks take into account a number of nuances.
- When storing goods, the passage between rows and fence should be at least 80 cm.
- The width of the viewing corridor between each tent of the stacks should not be less than 100 cm. The width of the corridor opposite the doorway is equal to its width with a minimally allowable value of 100 cm.
- Large warehouses equip the designs with central corridors. Their width should not be less than 250 cm.
- When using rack systems with retractable shelves, the width of the corridors increases depending on the type of installation of structures.
- If the warehouse is equipped with a one-sided system, the passage increases by 0.5 of the shelf parameter. If double-sided racks, pass will expand to the whole width of the shelf.
Technical norms allow the location of the longitudinal side of the module with a lumen 0.2 m to the fence. Exceptions are provided for special cargo. For example, their placement is prohibited from heating radiators.
They are mounted at a distance of 80-100 cm from the wall overlap. Evacuation openings are equipped along a rack end. It is strictly forbidden to locate the cargo in the openings between stacks and transport corridors.
According to GOST P 55525-2013, the designs with front loading may have wide and narrow-wide corridors. Breeding drives should provide for a turnover of up to 90 degrees. Their width is 2.5-3.7 m. Nerocometers vary from one and a half to 1.9 m.
Shelving systems are designed to optimize the workspace. Accommodation should take into account compliance with fire safety standards.
In addition, when planning, it is necessary to take into account the permissible loading capacity of the cells, the integrity and reliability of the structures.
Based on the type of construction, several varieties of production rack systems are distinguished. They are classic, high-altitude, elevator, modular, carousel.
By type of warehousing are divided into varieties with cells, roll-out and retractable platforms, storage boxes. Each type of shelving system, whether it is a universal, reinforced or mechanized rack, has its own characteristics.
Shelving shelving type belongs to the products of the collapsible type. They are produced on the basis of side frames, cargo beams, shelves and other parts. They are intended for warehousing heavy loads. Therefore, especially durable materials are used in their production.
Cumulative systems with shelves are convenient to use. They do not require special equipment for loading and unloading, there is free access to the stored goods. It is assumed to accommodate the cargo in the horizontal plane on each other.
Suitable for accommodating cargo of different sizes, mass, type. Refer to the standard storage system. Produced from galvanized steel, iron components, plywood and chipboard. Have a wide scope of application.
Different with the level of carrying capacity. There are classic (with a load of up to 300 kg), secondary (with a maximum permissible weight on the structure of 450 kg), freight. Cargo varieties withstand the load on the shelf to 900 kg and up to 1300 kg on the frame.
Printed industrial racks are divided into 2 types: passing and depth. They differ type of loading goods for warehousing. Depth systems are used in case of loading and unloading on one side.
Wall structures have no passages between rows. They are intended for storing homogeneous products in pallets. Used to accommodate in large warehouses. In comparison with other systems, such racks have the highest carrier cargo ability.
Are rigid metal structures from vertical frames connected by blind horizontal rows and cells with cells on which pallets are attached with goods. They are located on horizontal rows using a loader.
At the same time, they are compact, due to which it is possible to optimize the volume of warehouse space by reducing the passages between the rows. Provide the control of the distance between the transverse beams. Suitable for block storage of fragile cargo.
Frontal production racks were widespread due to the possibility of warehousing goods on pallets. These system are convenient and universal, can be used to store goods of the same type or combined type.
Size, weight and grade cargo can be any. Differ from the efficient operation of the working space. Convenient when performing an inventory of goods.
Combined with the address management system. Equipped with a wide range of auxiliary components (cargo ram, beams, lateral protection, alignment plates). Thus, it is possible to design different types of front rack systems.
This allows you to collect structures with a different number of tiers designed for concrete loading capacity. There are narrow projects and wide-rods, as well as double depths.
In the varieties of the last type the number of storage spaces increases. Serviced with a loader with telescopic pods. Used in warehouses of automotive, industrial chemical, pharmaceutical companies.
Racks with gravitational type of design differ from printed analogs by the presence of shelves with a roller mechanism and their tilt down from the side of the loader. The slope of through systems is designed in such a way that the pallets and drawers move along the design due to their weight.
This technological equipment has a complex system of braking mechanisms and stoppers. This affects their cost, which is approximately 5 times the price of universal models of the frontal type.
Gravitational structures are not too common, despite the lot of advantages. Depending on the characteristics of the system, it may assume the transverse movement of pallets. These racks may vary the number of tracks and the length of the conveyors on one or several levels.
At the same time, the storage load can navigate to the loader as quickly as possible. Allowed simultaneous unloading of several racks.
Mobile shelving structures are compact and significantly saved the storage space, without reducing the convenience of loading and unloading. They are equipped with rails, side panels, basic and additional frames, enclosures, stops and handles of the mechanical drive.
Regardless of the workload, each rack can be easily moved tightly to another. It is carried out quickly on guide rails.
Systems are convenient to adapt to any cargo. They have a different type of fixation of the shelves (on bolts and clips). Designs provide a change in the height of the shelves without using a special toolkit.
In these racks Manual control and maximum safety, Provided by locking mechanisms, as well as locks that close access to particularly important goods.
Mobile racks are characterized by more rational use of warehouse areas in comparison with stationary type analogs. They provide adaptation in the form of docking several sections for storing long-sized objects.
Console type varieties differ from other systems. The absence of shelves and frameworks for loading pallets. They have vertical profiles and horizontal racks that store large loads (lumber, pipes, beams, cabinet furniture parts, rolled products).
Based on the specifics of the cargo, the storage system can be equipped with additional elements. The most common of them are the anti-type limiters necessary to prevent spontaneous movement of pipes.
Console systems are serviced by loaders with sliding pixels. Designs have non-trap corridors. They are long, there are one-sided and bilateral. Options of the second type have a greater capacity.
They differ simplicity of installation, presence of limiters, save the cost of building a warehouse. Depending on the type of cargo, they can also be placed even car hulls. Such systems in addition to consoles have vertical profiles.
Multi-tier storage storage systems are manufactured to store a large amount of cargo with the possibility of simple combination of a shelf and pallet type of elements on one design.
Mandatory honors from other varieties is the presence of stairs. It can be bunk, three-tiered structures with venues for the passage and travel between rows with a stored goods.
They are characterized by ease of supply of goods to the upper tiers through the conveyor system. They have an automated storage type, high processing speed. Products placed on a 2-3-meter height are serviced without using loading and unloading mechanisms.
The type of construction is mounted, separately standing, combined.
In the production of racks of this type, wood, metal welded grids from fittings, perforated metal sheets.
Carousel (elevator) type racks include horizontal automated electronic control rack systems. They resemble continuous elevators with the principle of work “Product to Man”.
Used in warehouses with goods requiring frequent unloading. Different with small dimensions, in view of which are used as equipment of small warehouses. Have high storage density and maximum possible capacity.
Flexible systems are equipped with multifunctional shelves with dimensions adapted to the parameters of the stored cargo. Have an electric motor and roller chains moving along a closed trajectory.
Possess multi-level protection, provide complete maintenance of cargo. Provide emergency management, automatic chain stretch, easy course, presence of protective panels, separation of carrier elements in height.
Dimensions of shelving systems depend on various factors (such as design, warehouse size, view of stored cargo). Based on this, they are standard, large and multi-tiered.
For example, gravitational structures can reach a length of up to 30 m with a width of up to 8 m. Dimension limits are determined by the needs of a particular company. In addition to the volume of area are limited to placement requirements.
Large plants produce products with a height reaching 50 m. Middle varieties may have a height of 10-14 m, length from 1.8-2.7 to 3.6-5 m and more. At the same time, the beam adjustment step is half the meter, the load on the pallet can reach 1200 kg.
Modern rack systems of different types for warehouses produce many leading plants in Russia, Germany and other countries.
- “Askomplekt” Engaged in the production of metal systems from galvanized and stainless steel. Releases varieties based on stationary and mobile structures. Supplies equipment for state organizations and commercial structures. Engaged in the manufacture of high-quality standard systems and custom-made designs at reasonable prices.
- Stelkon delivers a wide range of industrial rack systems to the domestic market. Assortment of trademark presents a variety of automated type with radioathes, self-supporting, high-altitude, mezzanine structures, console, frontal, printed, mediterranean, gravitational type. The Russian company provides customers with a range of work from designing rack systems to their production, installation and service.
- LLC “Yar” Engaged in the production of archival type racks intended for small room equipment. In addition, the trademark manufactures mobile heavy structures for warehousing goods with high weight. Mobile manufacturer systems save space in storage facilities without reducing freedom of access to stored objects. Designs are designed to meet the rational use of each meter of warehouse.
- AVeto – company with its own production facilities, one of the leaders in its segment. Actively works in all regions of Russia. Produces pallet, printed, front, gravitational, shelf, metal mezzanine racking systems for warehouse space. Puts to the market deep racks for pallets and boxes. Designs and mounts structures in accordance with international nora. Is the founder of the National Association of Manufacturers and Suppliers of Racks.
- Storemaster – German manufacturer of racks for storing metal rolls weighing up to 15000 kg. Releases warehouse equipment for warehouses of metal products, metalworking industries, products for storing long loads up to 12 m long and maximum permissible weight load 6 T per shelf. In the range there are many types of systems with interchangeable cassettes, drawers (including electric driven with a height of up to 2 m), lattice cassettes for metal residues, platforms for individual sheets.
How to choose?
When choosing a storage rack, a number of criteria are taken into account. Key of them are the design of a warehouse for storing a specific product. Based on its size, a project of a shellage system is created.
Initially prepared a project for the arrangement, taking into account the characteristics of the foundation, the thermal insulation of the walls, the temperature indoors, as well as other factors. Then determined with the placement of communications.
After that plan placement. This question includes the calculation of the width and length of the corridors, the possibility of the passage of the loader, which has warehouse equipment.
Pay attention to the filling of the structure, its convenience for service personnel, the presence of a software filling. Given the adaptation of the system for storing a specific product, taking into account the maximum possible weight and size.
The type of rack is determined based on its own preferences. Before ordering, you need to pay attention to all trifles. This includes a plan with the location of the shelving system, its characteristics and all other nuances are indicated.
This will clearly appreciate the simplicity of access and service. The harder cargo, the more massive and the larger there should be a design. If an option is needed to accommodate the goods of the same type, ordered deep racks.
To store the combined cargoes worth ordering a system with shelves or pallets. Not the last criterion is packaging. For pallets, boxes, barrels need different types of racks.
Among other factors, the method of loading and unloading, warehouse conditions, the shelf life of the stored goods. For perishable goods, you need front systems.