Magnetic locks on the doors: choice, principle of operation and installation

Magnetic locks on the doors: choice, principle of operation and installation

In the 21st century, electronics displaces the mechanics in almost all spheres of human activity, including lockable devices for input and interior doors. Almost every entrance to major cities today is equipped with an electromagnetic lock intercom, and in office centers there are magnetic constipation on interroom doors, allowing you to limit the access of different categories of staff to different premises. Therefore, it is worth dealing with how the principle of operation of magnetic locks on the door, how to install them, how to make the right choice of such a device.

Magnetic locks on the doors: choice, principle of operation and installation

Application area

Magnetic constipation is currently distributed both in households and in commercial buildings and state offices. Such castles are put on the entrance doors of the entrances together with the intercoms so that the tenants can have the opportunity to open them remotely. In office centers, the installation of such locks allows you to give different employees to access to different rooms – the access card can only open one lock or several. At the same time, in the case of the dismissal of an employee, it is not necessary to even take the key to him – it is enough to change the access signature and update the cards from the remaining workers.

Magnetic locks on the doors: choice, principle of operation and installation

Magnetic locks on the doors: choice, principle of operation and installation

Magnetic locks on the doors: choice, principle of operation and installation

Magnetic locks on the doors: choice, principle of operation and installation

Magnetic locks on the doors: choice, principle of operation and installation

Finally, in government agencies such locks are installed on the premises in which particularly valuable items are stored or documentation, since these devices are usually much more reliable mechanical. On the entrance doors of individual apartments and private houses (with the exception of elite cottages) magnetic constipation so far are installed extremely rarely. Almost no electromagnetic locks and interior doors of residential buildings. But simple magnetic latches in such cases are widely used since Soviet times.

Magnetic locks on the doors: choice, principle of operation and installation

Magnetic locks on the doors: choice, principle of operation and installation

Magnetic locks on the doors: choice, principle of operation and installation

Magnetic locks on the doors: choice, principle of operation and installation

Operating principle

And for serious electromagnetic devices with cards or keys, and for primitive latches, the principle of operation is based on the mutual attraction of parts with different magnetic charges. In the case of a latch, there are enough two permanent magnets, oriented so that their opposite poles are opposite each other. The effect of electromagnetic locks is based on the appearance of a magnetic field around the conductor, according to which an alternating electric current flows.

Magnetic locks on the doors: choice, principle of operation and installation

If you give the conductor to the shape of the coil, and put the part from the ferromagnetic material inwards (which is customary called the core), then the magnetic field created by such a device will be comparable to the characteristics of powerful natural magnets. Working electromagnet, like a constant, will attract ferromagnetic materials, including most of the usual steels. The efforts required to open the doors in kilograms required to open the doors, this force can be from several tens of kg to one tonne.

Magnetic locks on the doors: choice, principle of operation and installation

Most modern magnetic locks are an electromagnet with the control system and the so-called response plate, usually made of steel. In the closed state through the system, electric current is constantly flowing. To open such a lock, you need to temporarily stop the flow of the current on it. This is achieved using a control system that usually includes a special reading unit that receives data from a magnetic key, a tablet or a plastic card and compares them with recorded in its own internal memory. When the signatures coincides, the control unit turns off the current, and the power holding the door disappears.

Magnetic locks on the doors: choice, principle of operation and installation

Often, such systems include additional elements, the most common among which is a pneumatic closer, gradually returning the door to a closed state. Sometimes there are combined variations of magnetic locks with mechanical, in which the forces of magnetism are used to hold the movable part (known as a riogeel) inside the groove corresponding to it. These designs are deprived of the benefits of electromagnetic and are an advanced latch option, therefore apply only for interior doors in homes and offices.

Magnetic locks on the doors: choice, principle of operation and installation

Varieties

As mentioned above, on the principle of action of magnetic Castles are divided into:

  • electromagnetic;
  • using permanent magnets.

Magnetic locks on the doors: choice, principle of operation and installation

Magnetic locks on the doors: choice, principle of operation and installation

In turn, according to the method of opening the electronic magnetic lock on the door can be:

  • on keys;
  • on tablets (variety of magnetic keys);
  • on the map (signature is recorded on a plastic card, which is read by a special device);
  • code (control device turns on the keyboard providing the possibility of entering the code);
  • Combined (such stand on most intercoms, the door can be opened both by the introduction of the code and using a tablet).

Magnetic locks on the doors: choice, principle of operation and installation

Magnetic locks on the doors: choice, principle of operation and installation

Magnetic locks on the doors: choice, principle of operation and installation

Magnetic locks on the doors: choice, principle of operation and installation

At the same time, if in most cases the key data, tablets or code is compared with data from the internal memory of the device, then the model with access on the card is usually connected to centralized control systems. In this case, each card has its own code, which definitely identifies its owner. When reading a card, this information is transmitted to the central server, which compares the permissions of the card owner with the door security level, which he is trying to open, and decides whether to open the door, leave it closed or even lift the alarm.

Magnetic locks on the doors: choice, principle of operation and installation

Locks on permanent magnets open in any case by mechanical disconnection of two parts. In this case, the resulting force must exceed the power of magnetic attraction. If ordinary latches are easily opening with the muscular strength of a person, then in the case of combined mechanical magnetic locks, opening systems are sometimes used using the growing arm of the levers. By way of installing the door magnetic lock can be:

  • Overhead when it is attached to the outer part of the doorway and the external part of the door frame;
  • mortise when both parts of it are hidden inside the canvas and the box;
  • semi-cut, when part of the design elements is inside, and part – outside.

Magnetic locks on the doors: choice, principle of operation and installation

Magnetic latches and combined locks are manufactured in all three variations. With electromagnetic locks, everything is slightly complicated – options installed on the door of the entrances are usually only overlaps, but for the interior doors, along with the overheads there are also two-line designs.

Pros and cons

All magnetic locking systems have general advantages:

  • The minimum number of movable elements (especially the absence of a shut-off spring) significantly increases the durability of the lock;
  • minimum external wear during operation;
  • ease of closure;
  • Closing and opening doors occurs almost silently.

Magnetic locks on the doors: choice, principle of operation and installation

Electromagnetic options additionally possess the following pluses:

  • the possibility of integration with centralized security and observation systems;
  • Making copies of the magnetic key are much more complicated and more expensive than for the usual, which reduces the risk of penetration of strangers;
  • a huge shut-off effort, significantly superior to most mechanical systems;
  • Due to the large dimensions of the response plate, the appearance of door skew during operation almost does not reduce the efficiency of locking.

Magnetic locks on the doors: choice, principle of operation and installation

The main disadvantages of electronic systems:

  • Some old intercom systems with a code lock have a universal service access code that can be known to intruders;
  • For stable operation of the system, constant power is necessary, since the door without leakage will be in the open state;
  • The complexity of installation and maintenance (change of access signature, repair and t. D. );
  • Reliable electronic constipation so far is much more expensive than a mechanical analogue.

Magnetic locks on the doors: choice, principle of operation and installation

Permanent magnets based systems have the following advantages:

  • work without current source;
  • Easy installation.

Magnetic locks on the doors: choice, principle of operation and installation

    The main disadvantage of such devices is the lowest retention force, which limits their use exclusively interroom door.

    Equipment of the device

    In the package of electromagnetic locking system Most often include:

    • electromagnet;
    • Response plate from steel or other ferromagnetic material;
    • control system;
    • A set of fittings for installation of the system;
    • Wires and other switching devices.

    Magnetic locks on the doors: choice, principle of operation and installation

    Depending on the type of device, you are supplied with such a means for opening:

    • with a card or their set;
    • with pills;
    • with keys;
    • Even a set with a remote control is possible.

    Magnetic locks on the doors: choice, principle of operation and installation

    Optional supplied may include:

    • pneumoder;
    • Uninterruptible, providing a temporary operation of the system without external power supply;
    • intercom;
    • External interface controller providing integration with security system.

    Magnetic locks on the doors: choice, principle of operation and installation

    Magnetic latches are usually included:

    • two latch elements installed on the door and box;
    • Fasteners (usually screws).

    Magnetic locks on the doors: choice, principle of operation and installation

    Combined mechanic magnetic constipation come in such a set:

    • Castle with a lever (reiguel);
    • Response part with the corresponding rigle with a hole installed in the box;
    • Fasteners and fittings.

    Magnetic locks on the doors: choice, principle of operation and installation

    Additionally, these devices can be equipped with:

    • handle;
    • clamps;
    • magnetic card and system reading.

    Magnetic locks on the doors: choice, principle of operation and installation

    Tips for choosing

    Choosing a type of magnetic lock, it is worth decreasing for what room you want to use it. For the doors between the rooms of the apartment, there will be enough primitive latches or mechanical magnetic locks, for the entrance door of the entrance it is better to use an electromagnet with a tablet and intercom, for the door of the garage or barn, is perfect with a remote control.

    Magnetic locks on the doors: choice, principle of operation and installation

    For office centers, the system with electromagnetic constipation, cards and centralized control is practically non-alternative – otherwise you will have to issue a set of individual keys to each employee. When choosing an electromagnetic device, take into account locking power – installation of the lock with an effort to open in a hundred kilograms on a thin door can lead to its deformation or even breakdown. On the contrary, a weak magnet is unlikely to keep a massive metal door.

    • For interroom and interior doors, enough effort is up to 300 kg;
    • For entrance doors, constipation with force of up to 500 kg are suitable;
    • For armored and simply massive iron doors, castles are suitable with a “margin” to tons.

    Magnetic locks on the doors: choice, principle of operation and installation

    Subtleties of mounting

    Put a magnetic latch on the wooden door just enough – you just need to place the canvas and box and attach both parts by self-draws. Combi locks are put as ordinary mechanical. But the installation of electromagnetic systems is better to entrust professionals. To install a magnetic lock on a glass door, you need to purchase a special fastener, which usually has a P-shaped. It is installed without drilling a glass web – it firmly holds the system of screws, clamps and softening gaskets.

    Magnetic locks on the doors: choice, principle of operation and installation

    About how to install a magnetic lock on the door, look in the following video.

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