Many millennia, foci and fireplaces decorate and warm our homes. Crack of firewood and the game of flames fascinate and create an atmosphere of comfort and relaxed rest, set up for a romantic way. Although electrocheamines, infrared and gas are invented, but it is wood foci that are much popularity. This is a classic tested by centuries.
Features and advantages
Today there is a huge variety of species and models of wood fireplaces and accessories to them. They can buy them already ready in the store or make to order, but you can build with your own hands and decorate to your taste and wish.
Strict fire safety requirements do not allow to establish a fireplace with an open furnace in the apartment, but in a private house or in the country, the fireplace performs the oasis of peace and cozy rest, especially in the diverse winter weather.
The real fireplace on firewood has the following advantages and performs functions:
- It is capable of driving a room of 20-25 m2;
- Some models can be used for drying products and wet things;
- serves as an ornament of any interior and creates a unique atmosphere of comfort in the house;
- easy to maintain and work;
- able to work on different types of fuel
- Helps ventilation of the room.
There are disadvantages:
- is only an additional heating method;
- due to fire hazard requires care to use;
- There is a need for fuel reserve and a special place for storing them in the house;
- correctly install or lay out the fireplace is a labor-intensive and cost;
- It is necessary to constantly clean the chimney.
These minuses may not be, if you correctly use the fireplace and carefully care for it.
Types and designs
Fireplace is a furnace, only with a furnace open in the side. It consists of a portal that frams the fireplace and performs a decorative function, the furnace in which firewood burns, chimney, in which the smoke. To remove gases and Gary, the furnace is equipped with a smoke collector and chimney – a special vertical pipe that displays combustion products from the furnace to the street with a chimney pipe.
Despite the simplicity of the design, there are a wide variety of types of wood heating systems. For fuel, you can use all combustible material, for example, firewood, cardboard. Specially for fireplaces are made of long-burning firewood – Pellets.
Foci on the installation site for street and homemade. The first mounted on the street and serve for cooking in the barbecue area, water heating and, of course, to decorate the site in front of the house. Second – internal for installation in rooms.
Separation goes and according to the method of placing the furnace indoors. Island structures place in the middle of the room at a distance from corners and walls. This method is considered the most time-consuming, but it looks like an impressive, often it happens two-way and heats a much larger area than other species. Unusually looks like a suspended fireplace, whose flue portal can be both glass and open.
Corner fireplaces fully justify their name and placed in the corner of the room, usually they are outdoor, embedded. Heat they give smaller than island, but it creates a real corner for rest and look very elegant. Share such a furnace makes it easier than separately standing.
Wall version – the easiest performed. Such a fireplace is built into the wall, most often carrying. It saves space space, but part of the heat goes into the wall, so he has a thermal efficiency than in other types of. On the wall placed hinged models, the walls are viscent or portable, which can be installed in any safe place of the room at the request of the owner.
By type of performance, household structures are divided into several groups:
- Classic execution. This is a furnace laid out of traditional natural materials according to standard, proven technology. Sheer portal is rectangular or square.
- Model in modern design with a variety of furnace shapes and made of metal, glass and other original materials.
- The specific D-shape with a wooden beam upstairs looks impressive and reliable.
According to the method of use, fireplaces differ, which, besides their main decorative function, also perform additional household tasks:
- The fireplace stove, on which the cooking panel is located on top and you can cook food;
- a fireplace boiler, which is used as a boiler, water heater;
- Heating of the furnace, almost smokeless, which is the main heating element indoor. Pre-made furnaces are produced with the possibility of connecting the heating circuit, pellet-wood boilers.
Made ovens with two types of furnaces – open and closed. The first option is very popular due to the sensation and aroma of the open flame, the second is safer, in it the flame is closed with refractory glass.
Principle of operation
The principle of operation of the fireplace is similar to the work of the usual oven. Firewood or other solid fuel is placed in the fuel. Firewood burns, highlighting radiant thermal energy in all directions. The temperature of the burning layer is 800-850 degrees. Part of the heat goes into the room, and the part hits the back wall and side parts of the fireplace, then reflected from the walls and falls into the room, but in smaller quantities, the indicators are reduced by about twice. Heat release occurs while the process of burning.
To the side and harmful products of combustion, they do not get into the room through the open front of the furnace, a special air flow is created, which enters the oven through pistened and goes further into the smoke collector. Smoke and gases that are formed during combustion, as well as part of the heat, with the help of thrust are pulled into the chimney and remove to the street through the pipe. Air to maintain burning is drawn straight from the room, natural ventilation occurs.
There are combined ways of work – it is possible to turn on the electrical, and can be equipped with wood fire.
For the manufacture of fireplaces, both traditional natural materials are used, the use of which has a thousand-year history and modern innovative, invented recently.
The choice of material is determined by its special properties that are necessary for safe and efficient operation:
- thermal conductivity, heat transfer;
- vapor permeability and gas permeability;
- heat resistance, heat capacity;
- Exhaustion, change in volume with leaps of temperature and humidity;
- non-combustibility, fire resistance, refractoriness;
- Plasticity and elasticity;
- Chemical stability when exposed to alkalis, acids, gases.
Traditional materials, such as refractory chamotte brick, stone, possess excellent characteristics for use in the layout of ovens of various purposes. Finnish fireplaces are made from volcanic talcomagnesite. Mammoths stone, as it is also called, has excellent thermal conductivity and natural beauty.
Of the modern materials, the most commonly used refractory tempered glass, which is closed by a flue portal so that the flame can be seen. Manufacturers offer glass, which are standing at a temperature of about +750 degrees. To obtain such properties, heat-resistant glass additionally temper. There are quartz glasses, the temperature limit of which is +1000 degrees. They can be laminated and toned at the request of the client.
Steel fireplaces constitute a decent alternative to stone and brick. This material has the following advantages:
- Compactness and low weight compared to other species. Such furnaces can be installed without foundation, move from place to place.
- High heat transfer rates. The room with a steel fireplace will quickly become warm, but also cooled such a fireplace also quickly.
- Easy care. Metal is easy to wipe, you can wash with special means.
Sheet steel is easier to handle than cast iron, so designers can give such fireplace sophisticated fantasy forms.
Artificial stone imitates natural analogs, but more accessible by price. They are facing portals of classic fireplaces. From the artificial stone you can upload whole walls and panels framing ovens.
Dimensions and forms
Decorative furnaces and wood fireplaces are of a wide variety of sizes and be huge stone, with panels and chimney to ceiling, which are an undoubted impressive center of all interior. The rest of the decor and furniture are formed around them.
If the number of the room does not allow you to place a big design, you can choose more compact, portable or suspended models, wall. Such species do not clutter the space and look in the interior easily. Even mini fireplaces are sold, usually they are mobile and create a rest and comfort corner anywhere at the request of the owners.
In any case, when choosing, it is necessary to take into account the size of the room so that the fireplace seems commensurate the rest of the subjects in the room.
The form of the fireplace determines the features of its design. Fire and chimney dictate an embedded furnace embedded in the wall or angle. Round fireplaces look superior and stylish, they require accommodation in the center of the room and visibility from all sides. Such designs put or suspend in spacious rooms. Today it is possible to manufacture the most bizarre and exquisitely decorated foci.
Classic rectangular fireplaces have usually solid dimensions and all over their views are designed to emphasize the impressivity and monumentality of the hall or hall in which they are located. They can be recessed in a niche or protruding from the wall.
Cylindrical ovens are often located on the street, in the recreation area and use for the preparation of a barbecue.
Styles and design
Any fireplace is undoubtedly a central interior object, and it is it that determines the general style of the premises. If the cottage, the living room or the office is ready and have their own unique style, the huge variety of furnace models will allow you to choose a suitable design and harmoniously enter a fireplace into a general composition.
Traditionally, in private houses put fireplaces in style Country or rustic. These fireplaces are lined with natural or artificial stone, wood. They often have a niche for storage of firewood. Fireplace shelves are executed by family photos in the cute framework, vases, decorated in rustic style.
Rectangular firebox, columns or bas-reliefs in decoration, marble or stone facing – all these elements inherent Classic. Such solutions will look great in the same classic environment.
Various ancient heroes and mythical animals, vegetable bas-reliefs, white marble and columns create a luxurious and refined style ampir. Furniture, curtains and room decor must be harmonized with such an original fireplace.
Modern It is characterized by the use of unusual forms and non-standard combinations of materials, such as wood, steel, glass. Such fireplaces will shock imagination and give the room a modern and fashionable view.
Style high tech Asked to the future and combines the clarity of the lines and the geometric correctness of the forms. Refractory innovative materials used in the decoration of such foci attract attention and fit perfectly in high-tech or minimalistic interiors. Steel and glass give the design transparency and ease, leave the feeling of open space and airiness in the room.
Along with the manufacturers known in Europe with age-old history, the fireplaces of which are in the best houses of Paris and London, new manufacturers are published in the arena, the products of which are not inferior to the masters of this area in quality and reliability. Russia is an active consumer of goods of these companies. Polish company Kratki, Italian Palazzetti, French Supra, Spanish Fugar Give warm and comfort to people and offer a rich choice of fireplaces on any, even the most discerning taste.
Russia also has companies that deservedly occupy leading positions in the market and get wonderful feedback from buyers who use ovens for many years.
Company “Vesuviy” Specializes in the production of cast iron and steel fireplaces of a wide variety of sizes and forms. These foci are decorated in different styles and are produced both with a closed firebox and open from refractory tempered glass. All products are tested before selling, which gives customers confidence in the reliability and durability of the furnaces and the furnaces “Vesuvius”.
Company “Meta” Already 20 years working in the domestic market. Specialists use the most modern technologies for the production and guarantee high reliability of their fully certified products. Buyers celebrate comfort in the use and care of the models of this company. The group “Meta” also produces accessories and components for furnaces.
Stylish ideas in the interior
In the modern living room in the style of High-tech, the fireplace protrudes the main object of the decor and is located in the center of the spacious room. Thanks to the glass screen and open furnace, the flame can be contemplate from any room angle. The focus revives the cold geometric interior and gives it warm notes.
All living room is withstand in ancient style. White marble columns, ornament and shape of chairs emphasize the sophistication and luxury of the interior. Beautiful fireplace, lined with the same marble, and the columns repeat the parts of the walls and furniture. The focus fire is drowning in a niche, it is closed in a glass screen. The decoration of the chimney is harmonized with the common style of the room and creates an excellent ensemble.
Beautiful Hall of Country House in Country Style. Nature’s proximity and fresh air, forest behind huge windows, natural materials in the decoration of the room and in the center of the composition – a huge stone fireplace with fireplace shelves, benches, decor elements. Flame charges energy and gives a feeling of blissful heat and comfort.
About how wood fireplaces work, look in the following video.