Cacti – Original plants, open and delivered to Europe the first American colonists. Like many succulents, these unusual plants can be content with a small amount of water and very unpretentious. Therefore, they quickly began to spread in Europe – at first as exotic plants of botanical gardens, and then in the collections of amateur flower.
From other succulents, cacti differ in a special structure – the result of a long evolution. They have almost no leaves. Although scientists are described by several species that can be seen on young proceedings, this organ for cacti is absolutely atypic. All functional functions – photosynthesis and the accumulation of water stock – took over the born meaty stem.
Cacti are widely widespread in the tropical belt and arid areas of the moderate belt of both Americas. Some have nicely mastered the highlands, constantly experiencing temperature difference. Some species of cacti were successfully acclimatized in Africa, Madagascar and other islands, on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. Even penetrated the shores of the Caspian Sea and the Lower Volga. The main limiting factor for these unusual plants was the humidity of the air and, as a result, the humidity of the soil. Able to survive the most extreme conditions, cacti may die from excess irrigation.
The soil prepared for cacti must be easy. The basis of such land becomes sand, and the fraction of it is better large. In the ground there may be gravel, and the rolled stones, brick crumb is allowed. One of the most important requirements – drainage. In no case, it is impossible that the soil contains ingredients that can accumulate and retain moisture. It is such an earth that is needed for other succulents.
It is believed that for such undemanding plants, like cacti, any pot will suit. However, picking it up, it must be remembered that in a narrow pot of moisture is held longer – the surface area of the surface through which evaporation occurs. The least suitable will be plastic pot, it does not absorb moisture at all.
Properly selected soil and, accordingly, the capacity for it can most close the conditions for the cultivation of your barbed pet to optimal, in which his wild fellow fellow.
The composition of the soil
Natural soil that cacti is like – a mixture of various kinds of debris material: sand and gravel of various fractions, dust particles that are applied by the wind, and also applied by storm precipitation streams. That is, some kind of strict structure in such soil may not be. For cacti suitable most soil. Rustic pensioners – lovers of flower exotic – decades planted cacti in a pot with an earth scored in a garden. And it should be noted that the cacti they have grown quite well and even regularly bloom. The truth of the sake of the sake of must say that they spread among such flower water, as a rule, the most undemanding species.
For the indoor plant, which was destined to become our pet, of course, it is necessary to try to create the most comfortable conditions. To do this, before planting it, it is still better to try to get acquainted with the conditions in which it grows on its historical homeland.
Different types of cacti can be inhabitants of not only various natural zones or high-rise belts, but also different hemispheres. Their variety is huge, and if we also add breeding forms and many other succulents, it can be imagined whether the range of their requirements for the composition and the structure of the soil.
Soil for cacti at home can be made up of various elements.
- Cherry clay soil. Can be obtained in areas with undisturbed or restored herbal vegetation.
- Garden (Greenhouse) Earth. Can be recruited on any garden or in the garden.
- Forest or garden land, educated leaf.
- Humus, Abundant to organic soil from fields or gardens.
- River sand. Can be collected from the banks of the river or any sandy career.
- Brick crumb. Contributes to the removal and accumulation of excess moisture from the soil.
- Charcoal in a coolest powder form. Holds down the development of rotten bacteria.
- Pebbles, gravel small fractions. All this is necessary to give greater porosity and the permeability of the soil.
- Zeolite (processed clay). This is the main element of feller feline toilets. The element contributes to absorption and deduction.
Thus, artificial soil for cacti must contain natural sources of minerals in the form of a certain amount of garden, delicate or garden land, elements actively absorbing and holding moisture, reduced negative effect from overflow, elements structuring soil (sand, pebbles, gravel), and natural antiseptic in the form of charcoal.
For different cacti, the proportion of these basic elements can very much.
Choosing a finished substrate
Can not be caught, picking up ingredients for landing cacti. Ready soil for these plants can be purchased in most specializing in household houses of stores.
Pros of this choice are obvious. You can not always find suitable ingredients to create a mixture. It is not always known the origin of gravel, and even there may be doubts about its composition. Therefore, sometimes it is better to still purchase a ready-made substrate specialist. However, it must be remembered that the basis of most ready-made soils is peat, and its high content for cacti is undesirable. Choosing a finished substrate, it should pay special attention to this ingredient.
The best in the composition for cacti can be considered soil:
- nyzin peat;
- Categorized to the category “Ferrected”.
Often on packages with a soil suitable for cacti, there is a designation “for cacti and succulents”.
How to make a mixture yourself?
Some flower-professioners prefer to make a soil mixture for their pets with their own hands. The arguments in favor of this choice are no less obvious than against him. Constituting the mixture at home, the flower engine is always sure that and in what proportions he added there. Some amateurs of indoor plants make up the universal soil from their existing ingredients, for example, on their summer cottage in the summer. Such a mixture can be successfully stored in an urban apartment. When landing a new cactus prepare soil for him will not be labor. Knowing that and in what proportions contains the prepared ground, you can always add something that is required in each case.
Such a universal composition can be represented as follows:
- 2 pieces of leaf humus;
- 2 pieces of turf land;
- 2 pieces of large sand;
- 0.5 parts of fragmented charcoal and brick crumb.
Pebbles and gravel can be mixed in one volume with sand. This mixture can become a substrate for those cacti, whose origin failed to determine.
Cactis successfully mastered various biocenoses of new light, but they can still be divided into several major environmental groups – each such group needs its composition of soil ingredients. Ideally, of course, it would be wonderful for each plant to pick up exactly that soil that became his native substrate. But it is absolutely impossible.
Cacti, who mastered the ecological niche of the desert, can successfully grow in the ground prepared from equal parts of the delicate and leaf land, peat and large river sand with pebbles.
The plain cacti can grow in the ground composed of two parts of the turf and one part: forest land, garden land, peat, large sand with pebbles or gravel.
Large cacti of the Ceresian kind are perfectly growing and developing in soil containing an equal amount of sand, forest and turf and half of the peat part.
All cactuses need a drainage system that can be created using clay and gravel. The first is located at the bottom of the pot, and the second can be used as the top drainage.
Like any echultured soil, the soil for cacti requires care. Before planting plants, it must be calcined or disappeared. To do this, it is necessary to place some part in the metal container in the oven preheated to 100 ° C.
Watering – a necessary condition for the normal growth and development of plants. Cacti, like many other indoor plants, require different irrigation intensity depending on the season. In the hot summer days you can water at least every day, but so that the soil does not accumulate moisture, but remained crumbly. With a decrease in solar lighting and in winter, soil moisturizing should be reduced. In winter, when plants practically do not grow (insufficient lighting) watering can be reduced to 1-2 times a month.
Fertilizer to the soil for cacti needs to be added regularly, for example, before starting intensive growth in spring. Cacti need the presence of nitrogen salts, phosphorus, potassium and calcium.
For normal development of plants it is necessary to carry out activities aimed at combating soil organisms representing the danger to room plants. The insect torment Radious Cherwec got the greatest distribution. As can be seen from the name, the creature will spoil the root system, which affects the growth of plants. Cherver can transfer from one pot to another, expanding infection. Detect and destroy it is very difficult. Flowers are recommended for prophylaxis periodically, for example, once a week spray your pet special insecticidal composition.
Not bad effect gives mechanical cleaning of roots. To do this, remove the cactus from the ground and thoroughly rinse its roots with warm water. Then the plant must be transplanted into freshly prepared soil. Infected primer can be replaced in the oven, this procedure will completely destroy pests.