The ancient art of cultivation of dwarf trees in flower pots, originated in China, then got the development in Japan, from where his procession on the rest of the world. Decorative trees were presented as expensive gifts, became the objects of collectibles and were increasingly gained popularity from flower lovers. Despite the fact that indoor trees are naughty in care and complex in cultivation, thousands of lovers in the world study the art of bonsai.
Features and species
You can grow bonsai from the trees of any kind, but coniferous looks especially beautiful. The best types for creating a coniferous bonsai recognized fir, thuja, pine and juniper. There are more than 10 basic styles of the formation of a tree, each of which carries its semantic load. But no matter how beautiful bonsai of the coniferous species of wood, grow it and care for him is difficult, so the newcomer does not recommend creating such a work of art.
To create a bonce of a fir uses such types.
- Spruce ordinary. Cone-shaped tree, often used as a New Year’s home decoration.
- Blue Spruce (Siza or Colorado). Famous thanks to the SIZO-green or blue coofing color, spruce has a narrow conical shape in youth, and an adult tree acquires a cylindrical appearance.
- Wood glaucie conic. Miniature spruce famous for a beautiful conical crown shape and thick cheese.
- Canadian fir. Beautiful blue-green top and blue-white Belight is a pretty woman.
Creation of fir bonsai
You can grow a dwarf tree from a seedling of the spruce, taken in the wild or bought in specialized nurseries. But it is very difficult to find the right view of the right age, so the Master Bonsai creates its compositions from trees grown from seeds. Before planting seeds, there are special processing, which disinfects and speeds up the process of germination. To do this, it is necessary to place the seeds ate for 24 hours in a weak solution of potassium mangartage. The next day to soak in clean water.
In the peat-sand mixture with the addition of coniferous humoring planting seeds to a depth of 15 mm, well moistened and cover with a film. The distance between the seeds seeds should be at least 4 cm. The optimal temperature for germination does not exceed 20 ° C. After a couple of weeks, the first sprouts may appear. When all seeds go up, choose and leave the strongest shoots at a distance of at least 75 mm from each other.
It is not recommended to leave only one sprout, since the ate has a feature: by the third year of life 50% of seedlings die.
Caring for shoots, it is necessary:
- to withstand the temperature in the range of 13-15 ° C;
- Watering should be replaced by spraying seedlings with water 2 times a day;
- Breathe from direct sunlight.
Gentle shoots ate unstable to diseases, especially the root rot, therefore it is important to handle the plant by fungicides. When the plant reaches a height of 0.1 m, begin to form a crown. The form of an adult plant is planned in advance and corresponds to the desire of the author Idea. For the formation of the village, the pitching of growth points, trimming and pulling over the twigs using copper or aluminum wire, setting the growth direction.
A year later, seedlings transplant the first time. It is best to make a transplant in early spring, prior to the start of active inacidation. Young seedlings carefully remove from the soil, trying not to damage the roots, remove spoiled and transplanted into separate pots. In the ground for transplanting, it is desirable to add land from under coniferous trees. Watered seedlings once a week in summer. Mineral feeding is brought once a year in the spring.
When the seedlings reach a three-year-old age, they are transplanted into a special bowl – bonsaine. This vase is selected taking into account the appearance of an adult plant and color scheme, since it is an important component of the future composition. The bowl must be shallow, with holes for the drain of excess water covered with shards, and comfortable for care. The soil for planting is selected in accordance with the type of plant, and around the planted sprout often lates Moss, imitating grass and preserving the necessary soil moisture.
Adult plants transplant every 2 years.
When the bonsai arrives in the selected pot, you need to continue the formation of the crown. This will have to do this throughout the life of a dwarf treary, as the growth process in the plant never stops. In addition to trimming unnecessary branches, it is used to pull out young soft twigs, the pinching of the top kidney and the ridge of the bark for the composition of the tree.
To bonsai retaining decorativeness and pleased with a neat look, once a year in the spring makes a solid truncation of the tree, Removing unnecessary and dried branches. Circuit places of thick branches must be treated with a garden boraner to prevent disease. Over the rest, only those sprigs that break the structure of the composition should be removed.
Removing the branches, it is important to remember the rule: if you remove too many branches and needles, the tree can die.
Watering an adult plant needed, checking the dryness of the soil inside the pot. Since the container for the life of the tree has small dimensions, and the soil in it is relatively small, for good growth and development of bonsai, it is necessary to regularly feed special fertilizers that may differ in composition for different types.
Proper lighting is of great importance to preserve the decorative composition of the composition. Fir prefer scattered sunlight for most day time year-round. With improper illumination of bonsai from a noble blue spruce can lose its extraordinary color and lose uniqueness.
Dwarf coniferous trees, like their full-fledged fellows, in the winter period go to the “hibernation”, reducing the vital activity. Wintering such copies are preferred in the cold, as in the apartment they are hot and lacking moisture in the air. The owners of dwarf firs exhibit pots with a tree to a balcony or arrange in the garden. If this is not done, bonsai can die.
How to plant a pine bonsai, look in the video below.