Varieties and nuances of photographic selection

Photography is a drawing technique with light, if we translate literally – “Sveta”. The image is created using a matrix in the camera, photosensitive material. The first photo almost 200 years ago in 1826 did a Frenchman Nieps. He used the chamber-obscura, and the first shot was created 8 hours. Almost in unison, another Frenchman, Dager, a surname who was immortalized in the word “Daggerotypia”. But today it’s all the story, many shoot a photo on the phone, however, the camera is still in demand by professional technician. And photography as a kind of art does not lose its position.

What it is and why need?

Already mentioned Louis Dager in 1838 the first photograph with the image of a person was made. BUT The following year, Cornelius made the first self-portrait (might say, Era Selfie began even then). In 1972, the first color photo of our planet was done. And all this thanks to the appearance of the device called the camera. With the principle of his work, everyone gets acquainted in school. This is a special device that converts a light thread outgoing from an object into a format that is convenient for storing the information received. The picture is fixed by chassis.

We will analyze how the camera works.

  • Pressing a special button opens a shutter. Through the shutter and lens, the light that is reflected from the fixation object falls inside the chamber.
  • Light falls on a sensitive element, film or a matrix. So the picture is formed, image.
  • The valve of the apparatus is closed. You can make new pictures.

Today, film and digital cameras are actively used. The appointment of them is the same, but technology to obtain an image looks different. In film technology, chemical, and in digital – electric. In digital cameras, the photo is ready for a moment, and it is not surprising that it is this technique that dominates today in the market.

For further consideration of the topic, we will conduct a brief overview of the terms.

  • Lens – This is a set of lenses ordered in a cylindrical building. He seems to compress the size of the exterior to the size of the camera’s matrix and focuses on it this mini image. Lens – one of the main parts of the camera affecting the image quality.
  • The matrix – This is a rectangular plate with photocells. Each of them is engaged in the transformation of light into the electric signal. That is, one photo-element is equal to one point in the image created on the matrix. The quality of these elements affects the detail photo.
  • Viewfinder – so called the sight of the camera, it will help to choose a photographing object.
  • Dynamic range – range of brightness of objects, the camera perceives it from absolute black to absolutely white. The wider range, the better the color shades are transmitted. The best in this case will be the stability of the matrix to the cross, the noise level in the shadows will be below.

Photo – an exciting art of fixing reality, and not only reality, and copyright look at this world. And the camera is the second eyes of the photographer.

Review of species

Cameras today are presented in a large assortment – from portable objects to very expensive and rich devices.

Film

The light reflecting from the object being removed is through the lens diaphragm, in a special way focusing on a polymer flexible film. This film is covered with photosensitive emulsion. The smallest chemical granules on the film under light action change color and transparency. That is, the film actually “remembers” picture. To form any shade, as you know, you need to combine red, blue and green colors. So, each micrograph on the surface of the film is responsible for its color in the picture and changes the properties as the light rays that have fallen on it.

The light is different in color temperature and intensity, because on the film as a result of a chemical reaction it turns out almost full copying of the scene removable or object. The style of the film photo form the characteristics of the optics, time exposure scene, illumination, the time of disclosure of the diaphragm and other nuances.

Digital

The first digital camera appeared in 1988. Today, these cameras captured the basis of the market of such equipment, and only true conservatives or lovers of the “old style” are filmed. The popularity of digital technology is related to the distribution of digital technologies: from personal computers to photo printing without reagents with reagents. Finally, the most important advantage of digital cameras is the possibility of correction of the picture quality at the time of shooting. That is, the percentage of spoiled frames is minimized. But the principle of operation of equipment from the classical chamber is no different. Only in contrast to film camera in digital photochemical conservation is replaced by photoelectric. This mechanism is characterized by the transformation of the light stream in the electrical signal with the subsequent record of the information carrier.

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An ordinary consumer is more interested in not how the digital camera works, but the classification of its types. And manufacturers offer different options. For example, compact equipment, sort of pocket chambers or, in common, “soap”. These are small cameras with a not particular sensitive sensor, lack of viewfinder (with rare exception) and a non-nominal lens.

Mirror

Among photographers pro This technique is very popular. Probably, at the expense of own versatility: a mirror chamber is well to shoot and statics, and the dynamics. The main feature of the “Creek” – the mirror of the same optical viewfinder. As well as removable lens and high resolution matrix. A complex glass transmission system helps to reflect the image in the mirror located at an angle of 45 degrees to the viewfinder. That is, the photographer will see in fact the same picture that will be released on the finished image.

Some models “Slsklok” are equipped with full-sized sensors. Image quality is very high, the device consumes energy economically, the speed of operation is high. The photographer controls the depth of field and can shoot in RAW format. Only if such a technique decides to buy a lover, it may seem to him not the most comfortable. Yet it is not a small unit, and the lens set only takes the design. If we carry everything with you, sometimes the total weight of the chamber and its additions is 15 kg.

Finally, the manual settings “DRIK” is also not convenient for everyone. Automatic mode of operation Many more like. And, of course, the price of such equipment in comparison with compact digital cameras is significantly higher.

Mescal

Full-frame mirrorless chambers do not have a moving mirror and pentaprises, that is, the dimensions of such equipment are already more winned than the dimensions of the “Slirlock”. These cameras are more compact, they are easier to carry. Optical viewfinder in them is replaced by electronic, there is a LCD display here. And the quality of the pictures these circumstances, by the way, do not reduce. “Magnifier” are equipped with interchangeable optics, and even lenses for “Slsklok” can sometimes be installed on mirror-type technique through special supporters.

If we talk about inconveniences, you can relate to them relatively fast battery consumption, because the sensor, and the viewfinder (as already noted, electronic) work in this technique constantly. But it is probably fixable, and the appearance of more capacious batteries is only a matter of time.

Falled

Dalgano Charter is a type of photographic equipment using a rangefinder to fix. The range finder is a device used to measure the distance from a person who removes, to the target that he removes. Difference from “Soapnya” is a less noisy shutter, and a short press interval on the trigger button, and a non-flashing picture in the viewfinder during shooting. The viewfinder is necessarily present in modern rangefinder chambers. And it demonstrates the frame completely, and the Vizier “Slirlock”, for example, will show up to 93% maximum information. Moreover, some “range rays” possess a large field of view, rather than “Sls”.

And if you designate flaws, it is worth saying right away – many of them are conditional. And technical progress every day cancels one drawback after another. But if they are still allocated, it sometimes slips the inaccuracy of cropping, difficulties with macro photography, the polarization filter has a very specific, with light filters work is also not easy.

Medium-format

These are cameras with a medium format matrix. Film and digital – classification remains all the same. Only the format of the matrix for film technology is standardized, and in the digital – the manufacturer sets it at its discretion. All digital media format chambers are divided into devices with a non-remote matrix, on camera with a removable digital backscreen, as well as cardan cameras with a digital backdrop. The main advantages of technology with an average format:

  • High information container, that is, the lens of such a device can fix a large number of objects, and it reduces the grit of the picture;
  • The device reproduces the color and shades of the image well, that is, correctional interventions are practically not required;
  • En sufficient focusing distance.

The above-mentioned types of equipment demonstrate that the digital format is full dominant in this market. And no stereoscopic, infrared, wide-angle, panoramic queries are not leading as simply searching for a good digital apparatus. Preferably with a swivel screen. The remaining characteristics are bayonet, for example (as a type of lens fastening to the camera), and even 4K (recording format, that is, the picture that consists of more than 8 million pixels) – Optional. They are treated by the pro, and lovers and beginners often choose the chamber on brands, at a price, and focusing on the basic characteristics.

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Main characteristics

This dictionary will help to understand how the basic criteria should be assessed by the camera.

  • Depth of field (flu). So called the distance between the most close and most distant scene object, which the camera perceives as a sharp. The diaphragm, focal length of the lens, resolution and focus distance affect the depth of the image.
  • Matrix size. The more the most useful area of ​​the matrix, the greater the photons it captures per unit of time. If a photo is decided seriously, it is desirable that the Crop Factor Camera was 1.5-2.
  • ISO range. But on the maximum value of this parameter especially and no need to pay attention. It can be enhanced by it infinitely, but with a useful signal, the gain affects and noise. That is, in practice, ISO limit values ​​are not applicable.
  • Screen. Than he is more than its permission, the more convenient it is for viewing a photo. And at least many are confident that it is better not to find a touch screen for a modern person, it will not replace buttons and switches exactly.
  • Mechanical strength. Shockproof – characteristic, which is more applied to photographers, removing in extreme conditions. That is, the usual user is not needed to overpay.
  • Dust Galleckopy. If a frequent fitting is assumed in nature, then the moisture protection device is really more convenient. But even if this indicator is high, it does not guarantee that the camera will not suffer when entering the water.
  • Battery resource. The more its capacity, the better. But it is worth remembering that cameras with an electronic viewfinder in this sense are more “voracious”.

The main properties of the camera will be checked with a dozen: there are different memory cards in the kit, and the flash lock, and the exploration and much more. But immediately try to figure out everything is not so and necessarily. These knowledge will come gradually. But the following tips are more accurate as hints to the chamber.

How to choose correctly?

Goal, task, the level of preparation of the photographer – that’s what you need to repel. Consider how best to make selection.

  • If the goal of acquiring a camera is mostly a family shoot, then even the usual “soap” will cope with it perfectly. Quality photos in daylight – quite a real request for such cameras. You need to choose a model with a resolution of up to 8 MP and a CMOS matrix. You should navigate the models with the maximum parameters of the Lights, in compacts, it is worth reminding, non-removable lenses, and fix it will not work.
  • If the pictures are planned to be done in nature, rest, traveling, the choice can be stopped on mirrorless devices with a resolution of 15-20 Mp.
  • If the purpose of the purchase is not amateur shooting, but professional, it should be a “mirror” with a large matrix (MOS / CCD). At the same time, 20 MP for detail more than enough. If the shooting is dynamic, you need a shockproof device.
  • Macro technique – this is primarily a good lens. It is advisable to stay at a constant focal length. The wide-angle lens is suitable for shooting fixed parts, long-focus – for all moving.
  • For beginners there is no universal advice, choose anyway for one or another parameters. But the pros assures that the expensive technique for the experience of the first filming should not be purchased. Even from the calculation that all the “bells of the cool chamber is a newcomer will be used minimally, and the price for the experience will pay very large.

Therefore, newbies in the photo should look not so much on the protected chamber from shocks or whether the “fotik” explosion-proof, but on photosensitivity, focal length, permission values.

Famous brands know people far from photography. What the camera is the best, argue to this day both relative to the manufacturer and models. Top 6 leading brands in the photo engineering market includes all known names.

  • Canon. This company has been more than 80 years old, the Japanese manufacturer has its own fees in various Asian countries, and in China too. Reliable Case, Excellent Quality, Choice of Equipment and Budget – Industable Breed Dentations. The functionality of all models is relatively simple and available.

  • Nikon. Constantly competing with the above-described brand. Veteran in the photo engineering market – 100-year-old Front. And this is also a Japanese manufacturer, but the plants are also posted throughout Asia. Very often, the brand is mentioned as the best “sills” for newcomers-photographers in the ratio of price – quality.
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  • Sony. Another Japanese world name corporation. It is considered a flagship relative to the best visualization of electricide detector. And also the brand has the full right to “take the” purge “by copyright lenses. But suitable for models of the company and lenses of other suppliers.

  • OLYMPUS. Based on the Japanese brand more than 100 years ago. This is the largest manufacturer of mirrorless devices. He created 5 generations of protected cameras. And he also offers the buyer many budget models. And outbreaks of this technique are approximate to professional.

  • Panasonic. Neum Brand – Lumix. The profile is wide: from compact models to “Slskalk”. Mark connects two recognized qualities – German and Japanese. There are models that are quite budgetary at the price, but they can shoot in true extreme conditions: on the scorching the sun, on the punching to the bones of frost and even under water.

  • Fujifilm. This brand loves many photo checkers, “mirrot” manufacturer are considered the most quick, and the photos are crystal clear. Now the company is concentrated on the development of the world’s best premium cameras.

Accessories

The choice of accessories, of course, depends on the needs of the photographer. The most important includes several items.

  • Memory card (for a digital camera) and film for film. If a pro is removed, it will be suitable for a 64 GB card (minimum), but many photographers acquire a carrier at once 128 GB.
  • Protective filter. It puts on a lens and protects the front lens from dust, moisture, mud.
  • Sunny Blend. This accessory is used to reduce the number of glare and light in the photo.

A synchronizer may need a photographer: it guarantees the simultaneous flash and shutter. Often photographers acquire an external flash, a tripod for image stabilization. Less used include a special complex for cleaning lenses, colored light filters, aquabox to engage in underwater shooting, and even a remote control. But before buying accessories, you need to disassemble in the chamber, its settings (and exposer, and shooting modes), and understand what, indeed, you need, and what will be hasty buying.

Operating tips

And at the end of several valuable tips for newcomers, which while the words “adjustment”, “Exposure” and “depth of field” only frighten. Here are 13 advice beginners.

  • Camera settings should always be reset. It happens that to capture the frame you must react quickly. And here is the “fotik” at hand, the frame is made, and the picture quality is not because the settings were not removed.
  • Map must format. And do it before shooting, as it practically guarantees any data deformation.
  • Set image size – useful habit. The camera itself is usually the default premises high resolution, but it is not always necessary.
  • Need to learn settings settings. So checked the strengths and weaknesses of technology, its capabilities.
  • The tripod must be high quality. The longer it will last, the faster it is unfolded, the less he is susceptible to wear.
  • Do not forget about the leveling of the horizon line. It should be clearly horizontal, without tilt. If the digital level of the horizon is “stitched” in the chamber, they need to use.
  • Manual focus often safer autofocus. For example, the detailed focus during macro pass should be manual.
  • The focal length of using it is necessary to situly, taking into account the remoteness of what is being removed now.
  • Be sure to check the edges of the frame, since most of the viewfinders of 100% of the image coverage does not give.
  • You always need to shoot more than required, because immediately, for example, the finest changes in lighting are not visible – and in the photo they will be noticeable. Shoot a lot, and then choose the best – practice that does not fail.
  • Do not ignore the exposure modes available in the chamber. And at least many pros refer to them with skepticism, creatively applied the possibilities of technology very interesting. For example, when configuring the “Portrait” mode, a wide aperture with muted colors will appear. And with the “landscape” rises saturation.
  • Often there is a dispute about the importance of exposure and aperture. More precisely, that of this is more important. The diaphragm controls the flu, and shutter speed – the shutter speed. What is needed more serious control, then in priority.
  • When changing the lens, the camera should always be turned off, the lens hole must be kept down. Hitting dust and other unwanted particles into the chamber when changing the lens – often practice, because this moment should be carried out extremely delicately.

Have a good choice!

How to choose the right camera, look in the following video.

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