Homemade columns – the path to almost unlimited power. You can create at least a RF speakers for a few watts, even though a subwoofer for hundreds of watts, practically approaching the equipment that is used on dance pieces and disco clubs. Opportunities are limited only to the high cost of the largest speaker.
Features of self-made models
If you want the neighbors to be envied to you only because you have heavy duty semi-or professional acoustics, it makes sense to finish its main stereo colors with a powerful subwoofer, superior to them in tens of times. The feature of the low frequencies is that, in contrast to medium and high, they are not subjected to stereo. It means to produce two broadband columns in which low-frequency speakers are separate, no sense.
The main thing is to choose dynamics and powerful amplifier chips, as well as a powerful pulse power supply to 100 and more watt-hours of consumed the amount of electricity.
The remaining consumables are a penny compared to them. Paying special attention to quality, the user really collects the speakers with their own hands, serving dozens of years without any problems. Basically, only semiconductor radio elements (diodes, transistors, chips) are aging.
Virtually unlimited fantasy in design will allow you to make any column – cubic, “parallelepiped”, any other polyhedron. Round columns – cylindrical, ovoid, also enjoy extremely popular. From specific details – for example, an egg, may have four phase inverters, which also matters in terms of design solutions.
Tools and materials
Of the tools for work, the following will be required:
- drill with a set of dried;
- Bulgarian with a cut-off disk;
- Electrolovka with fine-grained saw;
- Scrubber with flat and curly bits.
The power tool allows you to cope with work several times faster than a fully manual set of tools. But plumbing tools are also needed: hammer, passatia, booths, possibly adjustable key, cutter, file (or chisel). Requires a soldering iron with a stand.
Materials for the manufacture of columns:
- Board chipboard, fiberboard or plywood;
- self-tapping screw;
- bolts and nuts with engraving washers;
- The glue is universal for gluing a tree, rubber and plastic (or furniture corners – they are preferable to disassembling the column in case of its failure);
- solder, rosin and solder flux.
If you are collecting the amplifier board yourself – you will also need folgized fiberglass.
Alternative is the assembly on any dielectric plate (except for rubber), where the boards are soldered from the wire, and they will not cut / etch on a conductive layer (glass) of the textolite.
Radio elements are purchased according to the amplifier scheme. In addition to the main chip, you need hinged elements – resistors, capacitors, diodes, possibly coils and chokes. Additional heavy duty transistors are used as terminal cascades – when the power of the main microcircuit is not enough, and the bridge turning on end stage cascades could help the user achieve almost unlimited power.
For winding homemade coils of oscillatory contours of the separation filter if the column is general, and not for low frequencies, it will take enamel, epoxy glue and a piece of plastic pipe of the desired diameter.
Instructions for manufacture
The manufacture of the column is a multi-step process, divided into locksmith and electrical work. The column for the house (or rather, for a PC or home theater) is made according to a predetermined drawing. Select the subwoofer – mini or normal option, the size of the box is made at the beginning of work depends on it.
To assemble the case, follow these steps.
- Split the drawing board from chipboard, natural wood or MDF, on composite elements.
- Prepare a rectangular hole for a cable cable labyrinth.
- Crerate on corners or glue epoxy glue upper, bottom, rear and side facets. It turns out a not fully assembled drawer with sufficient rigidity.
Column box assembled.
To collect and install the port, do the following:
- cut out suitable pieces from the box that fit into the sizes of the column;
- Connect the knee of the box at the point of rotation of the cable channel;
- Check that the port (precast cable box) is fitted for the inner dimensions of the box;
- Stick it with a thermoclaus or sealant.
When the glue dries, check that the port from the box does not hang. Insufficient consolidation can lead to the fact that it is included in the resonance at a certain frequency.
Hole for the speaker
The dynamics required large, it is desirable for an ideally round hole for its external diameter. Cut it out so that the speaker is fluent in it. Most low-power “bassovics” (up to 30 W) fit into 8 inches on the diameter of the hole. If the subwoofer is assembled on the basis of a conventional rectangular or cubic column, then replace the front wall. Unnecessary openings from additional speakers are not needed.
Treatment of the inside of the case
After installing the labyrinth channel, which allows the column to produce maximum bass, and at the same time not “tumbling” in the lower frequencies, the inner part of the column is covered with damping material. It reduces the likelihood of resonance with time. As a damper, a predominantly thick cloth is used, folded in several layers of Drap, woolen fabric or just a piece of old fierce carpet. It absorbs an excess of sound waves, not allowing them to be recycled several times, which in the end would lead to loosening the design and the appearance of resonance.
Important part of the internal assembly – layout, placement of functional electronics. Initially, the amplifier is prepared. Make the following.
- Make a printed circuit board according to its topology (track cards).
- Place radio elements according to the electrical circuit (assembly drawing).
- Repell all contacts details with packet tracks.
- Solder wires on the input, output and power supply of the collected amplifier.
- Attach the amplifier radiator to the main microcircuit and place it in the reliable place of the column, for example, using screw racks. It is permissible to place it and on wooden linings – it will not heat so much to fall.
- If the dynamics power reaches hundreds of watts, collect additional amplifying cascades. Their number is limited only to the free space inside the column.
For example, 8 cascades of 100 W, amplified 25-watt sound from the release of the chip included on the bridge circuit, are able to provide 800 W.
But for cooling all radiators, a powerful computer cooler will need, the air flow is sent to these radiators. Each transistor will require its heat sink radiator. In the old days, radiologues were used – now they are ousted by transistors and chips. In addition, the level of linear distortion in radiolampus amplifier cascades.
The power on the collector dispelled by the transistor (its actual useful power) is only 1.5-2 times more thermal separated by semiconductor transitions when heated during intensive work. To remove excess heat from the power elements, and the radiator needs.
In a powerful active column, which is a subwoofer, an internal power supply may be required. He must issue dozens of amps and be powerful enough – without such power, disperse the speaker system will not succeed. To leave the same fragrant and efficiency of “bass”, often the amplifier, and the power supply is placed in a separate, tightly degraded from the main acoustic cell compartment. This requires the seventh wall of the drawer, which serves as an inner partition. She was cut down taking into account the labyrinth move passing through her. Electronics placed in the rear of the box. If the column is not active, the amplifier and the power supply is carried out in a separate unit. Only the power wire is suitable for the column itself.
As a power supply, a charger for automotive batteries is often charged. It gives no more than 15 V, while the current can reach dozens of amps. It is performed according to the modern scheme of the pulse power supply, which includes:
- Network rectifier – a powerful diode bridge at 220 V;
- The frequency converter from units to tens of kilohertz – it allows tens of times to reduce the dimensions of the transformer;
- Transformer – galvanically unleashes the output of the network voltage, protecting against shock and high-voltage breakdown;
- High-frequency rectifier bridge on modern diodes with high efficiency;
- filter – delays current throwing;
- Pulse stabilizer – eliminates voltage jumps.
All this scheme, having the necessary details, can be collected in the column and yourself. But more often put the finished block built-in or remote (in one case with an amplifier). Placing all the necessary functional nodes inside the column, we do the following:
- output the power and sound;
- We connect the speaker to the output of the amplifier;
- Install the front part (with a speaker) and fix it.
Before the design and ergonomics of the column, test it:
- Connect to the amplifier input any sound source (for example, smartphone);
- Turn on the power supply;
- Also connect high-frequency columns (satellites) to exit the amplifier;
- Run some musical track on your gadget.
The sound should be clean, without wheezing. Low frequency speaker must clearly reproduce low frequencies.
Most subwoofers are focused on low frequencies from tens to hundreds of hertz, the rest are reproduced with high-frequency speakers. You can make sure that temporarily disabled these “satellites” during operation. If the test has passed successfully (the rattling, whether or other interference in sound is not detected), spend the acoustic calculation of the room or car.
- Install the subwoofer somewhere on the floor. In the car it is most often a trunk or space under the rear seat.
- Come around the room (or near the car, transplanted in the car for different seats), listening to the natural sound of bass. If the sound acquires buzzing shades – move the subwoofer to another place.
- Try to reconfigure the equalizer (if you are a musician, then sampler) amplifier or gadget itself. Get optimal settings so that the column does not go to the area slightly highlighted lower frequencies (100-250 Hz).
If the bass blur is completely failed to get rid, the reasons are as follows:
- incorrect calculation of the box and channel;
- The speaker does not correspond to the stated characteristics;
- The slots between the column walls are not carefully sealed enough;
- Too thin plywood from which the walls are cut.
For high-power columns, it is impossible to use a board or plate with a thickness of less than 15 mm – the stiffness of the walls in this case for sound waves is insufficient.
The exterior design of the column can be done by any, even the most unusual. Finishing options:
- column sheathing;
- Treatment of the chipboard of chipboard, painting;
- installation of thin-walled plastic, metal or composite panels;
- Punching of high-quality plastic wallpaper or decorative film.
Front, where the speaker is located, closes a fine lattice. The latter will protect the Rupoore diffuser from random tile movements. In some columns, several phase inverters allow you to hide the speaker inside the whole.
It should be remembered that the output voltage at the power of the amplifier in hundreds of watts can reach 40 volts. Sound – fast speed with non-perceptible frequency. You will receive a shock and at lower high-frequency voltage values. Do not grab your hands for bare (in places of compounds) wires speakers operating at full power. There have been cases when people beat current and from 25 V with frequency, for example, 8 kilohertz.
The column for concert halls reaches the capacity of one kilowatta and more. Purchase this speaker is extremely difficult – it can cost dozens, and even hundreds of thousands of rubles.
A column that will be heard over three kilometers will require a powerful power line. At the elite discos of Moscow and St. Petersburg, subwoofers with a capacity of up to 500 kW were used. For such a sound, sometimes a separate substation and a power line designed for ultra-high load. Amplifiers and columns in finished form cost not one million rubles. Only speaker will cost several hundred thousand rubles. Do not chase for kilowatts. High-quality “car audio” is limited to one or two hundred watts. The main thing is to set up the equalizer and calculate acoustics, and you will be enough for 10-50 W for each stereo channel.
Creating a powerful subwoofer, make sure that the speaker does not radiate infrasound frequencies (up to 20 Hz). Do not try to get them! Normal sound with a frequency of 20-20000 Hz makes your body vibrate and is a small danger. But the sound waves with a frequency of 6-8 Hz at a similar power and volume of the column are capable of rupture internal organs, for those are included in the resonance. The waves with a frequency of 16-18 Hz cause hallucinations – it was this effect that was used in disco clubs.
Young people who came to spend time on the disco where the loud sound contained extremely low frequencies and served as an audio cloth, fell into a state of changed consciousness even without drinking alcohol and tobacco. Modern manufacturers do not allow the speakers, transistors and chips to issue an infrasound. The fact is that its use is limited by scientific laboratory tests, and not intended for domestic use. For normal civilian purposes, powerful infrase is prohibited by law.
Use the column away from frost, high humidity and acid vapor. It will not give her to fail prematurely.
Subwoofer can not be used in field, fully mobile conditions. If you want sound, both in a car, with well-pronounced frequencies of 20-80 Hz on a walk or hike, use powerful headphones for gamers, fully closing ears. They work with any frequencies from 20 to 20,000 Hz. The desired sound settings are set in the software media player on the smartphone, tablet or ultrabook.
The computer will not give up dozens of watts of power – its preamplifier is only calculated by 1-2 W. Do not connect the subwoofer directly to the output of the sound card: the resistance of the column in 8 and less will burn the terminal cascades of the sound tract.
Powerful subwoofer, made personally, saves at the total cost of the column of 10 or more times. Possessing skills in assembly and plumbing work, you will save 10 and more than thousand rubles from your budget.
How to make a subwoofer do it yourself, look next.