Wine-belt foundation: advantages and disadvantages, recommendations for construction

The need to ensure capital buildings sustainability on movable or wetlands causes the search for new foundation systems. Such is the pile-belt foundation, which combines the advantages of two types of foundations.

Peculiarities

The pile-belt foundation is a ribbon base on supports (piles), due to which a stable design with a high margin of strength is achieved. In most cases, such a foundation is created under major low-rise buildings on “problem” soils (clay, organic, uneven reliefs, water-saturated).

In other words, the strength of the structure provides a ribbon (usually fine-breed) foundation on which walls are based, and a durable grip with soil – piles, clogged below the ground freezing level.

Wine-belt foundation: advantages and disadvantages, recommendations for construction

Wine-belt foundation: advantages and disadvantages, recommendations for construction

This type of base is not designed for multi-storey construction. Usually, on such a foundation, private houses are erected at no more than 2 floors in height using lightweight materials – wood, cellular concrete blocks (aerated concrete and foam blocks), hollow stone, and sandwich panels.

For the first time, technology began to be used in Finland, where predominantly wooden houses are built. That is why the combined foundation is optimal for houses from wood or frame structures. Heavier materials will require increasing the number of grounds, and sometimes the search for other solutions.

Most often, such a foundation is built on floating clay, fine soils, in swampy locations that poorly outlook soils, as well as on areas with a height drop (no more than 2 m in terms of level).

Wine-belt foundation: advantages and disadvantages, recommendations for construction

Wine-belt foundation: advantages and disadvantages, recommendations for construction

Depth of the embezzlement of piles is usually determined by the depth of solid soil layers. The monolithic concrete foundation is poured into the formwork located in the trench of 50-70 cm deep. Before starting work, the maintenance of the soil and the punching of the trial well. Based on the data obtained, the scheme of grounding of the soil layers is drawn up.

The use of a ribbon foundation on piles allows you to significantly increase the performance of the object under construction.

Wine-belt foundation: advantages and disadvantages, recommendations for construction

Wine-belt foundation: advantages and disadvantages, recommendations for construction

Among the advantages of the system, you can allocate some positions.

  • The possibility of capital construction on “capricious” soils – where it is impossible to use a belt base. However, due to the large load of the object, it will not be possible to use only piles.
  • In this type of foundation, it is possible to reduce the sensitivity of the tape base for bunched soils and underground waters.
  • Ability to protect the ribbon foundation from flooding, as well as transfer most of the weight of the base to the firm layers of the soil at a depth of 1.5-2 m.

Wine-belt foundation: advantages and disadvantages, recommendations for construction

Wine-belt foundation: advantages and disadvantages, recommendations for construction

  • Such a foundation is also suitable for durable soils subject to seasonal deformations.
  • Higher construction speed than the construction of a foundation with deep downstream.
  • The ability to get an object with a basement that can serve as a useful or technical room.
  • Availability of materials used both for the organization of the foundation and for the construction of wall structures.
  • Reducing the cost and complexity of the process compared to the organization of a belt foundation.

Wine-belt foundation: advantages and disadvantages, recommendations for construction

Such a foundation has and cons.

  • Increase when filling the foundation for the number of operations performed manually. This is due to the inability to use excavators and other techniques for giving trenches due to driven piles.
  • The inability to use the resulting semi-breeding room as a full room (pool, relaxation rooms), as is possible when a tape fundament device. This disadvantage can be leveled by chopping, but the cost and complexity of the process increases. In addition, this approach is not possible on each type of soil, even if there are piles.
  • The need for a thorough analysis of soil, drawing up a surround project documentation. As a rule, this work is charged with specialists to avoid inaccuracies and errors in the calculations.
  • Pretty limited selection of building materials for walls – this must be a lightweight design (for example, from wood, aerated concrete, hollow stone, frame house).

Wine-belt foundation: advantages and disadvantages, recommendations for construction

Wine-belt foundation: advantages and disadvantages, recommendations for construction

Device

The load of the building on the soil is transmitted through the ribbon foundation installed around the perimeter of the object and under its carrier elements, and piles. And supports and ribbon enhanced by reinforcement. The installation of the first is carried out by a boronobyl method or using the filling technology by concrete installed in the wells of asbestos pipes. Buried method also involves pre-drilling wells in which supports are immersed.

Spreads today receive and screw piles having a blade at the bottom of the support for screwing into the ground. The popularity of the latter is due to the lack of necessity in the complex preparation of the soil.

If we are talking about screw piles up to 1.5 m, they can be twisted independently, without attracting special equipment.

Wine-belt foundation: advantages and disadvantages, recommendations for construction

Wine-belt foundation: advantages and disadvantages, recommendations for construction

Wine-belt foundation: advantages and disadvantages, recommendations for construction

Scoring piles are rarely applied, since this method causes the appearance of soil vibrations, which negatively affects the strength of the bases of neighboring objects. In addition, this technology implies a high noise level during operation.

Depending on the characteristics of the soil, piles racks and hanging analogs. The first option is characterized by the fact that the design of the racks is based on solid soil layers, and the second – elements of the structure are suspended due to the strength of the friction between the soil and the side walls of the supports.

Wine-belt foundation: advantages and disadvantages, recommendations for construction

Wine-belt foundation: advantages and disadvantages, recommendations for construction

Wine-belt foundation: advantages and disadvantages, recommendations for construction

Calculation

At the stage of calculating materials, it is necessary to determine the type and number of piles suitable for their length and diameter. To this stage of work, it is necessary to approach the maximum responsibly, since the strength and durability of the object depends on the accuracy of the calculation.

Determining factors when calculating the required amount of materials are the following positions:

  • load on the foundation, including wind level;
  • object dimensions, number of floors in it;
  • Features and specifications used for the construction of materials;
  • Features of the soil.

Wine-belt foundation: advantages and disadvantages, recommendations for construction

Wine-belt foundation: advantages and disadvantages, recommendations for construction

When calculating the number of piles, they consider that they should be located at all corners of the object, as well as on the place of the junction of the bearing wall structures. On the perimeter of the building supports are installed in 1-2 m increments. The exact distance depends on the selected material of the walls: for surfaces from the slag block and porous concrete bases, it is 1 m, for wooden or frame houses – 2 m.

The diameter of the support depends on the floor of the building and the materials used. For an object to one floor, screw supports are required with a diameter of at least 108 mm, for boronobivinal piles or asbestos pipes, this indicator is 150 mm.

Wine-belt foundation: advantages and disadvantages, recommendations for construction

Wine-belt foundation: advantages and disadvantages, recommendations for construction

Wine-belt foundation: advantages and disadvantages, recommendations for construction

When using screw piles, it is necessary to select models with a diameter of 300-400 mm for perplexed soils, 500-800 mm – for medium and strongest, implantable.

It is important that they have an anti-corrosion coating.

Wine-belt foundation: advantages and disadvantages, recommendations for construction

Under attack – terraces and verandas – and heavy structures inside the building – furnaces and fireplaces – Requires its own foundation, reinforced by perimeter supports. Installation is also needed at least one pile for each side of the perimeter of the second (additional) foundation.

Wine-belt foundation: advantages and disadvantages, recommendations for construction

Mounting

Getting started to perform a tape base on piles, it is necessary to carry out geological surveys – observations and analysis of the soil in different seasons. Based on the obtained data, the required base load is calculated, the optimal kind of piles, their size and diameter is selected.

Wine-belt foundation: advantages and disadvantages, recommendations for construction

If it is decided to make the creation of a pilented base with your own hands, then the accompanying step-by-step instruction will simplify this process.

  • On the cleaned area, mark the markup under the foundation. Trench under the tape can be shallow – about 50 cm. The bottom of the trench is filled with sand or gravel, which will ensure the drainage of concrete base and reduce the bunch of soil. If we are talking about a large basement, then cutting.
  • At the corners of the building, in the places of the design of the structure, as well as throughout the perimeter of the building in 2 m, drilling under the pile. The depth of the resulting wells should run on 0.3-0.5 m lower than the level of primerization of the soil.

The diameter of the well must be somewhat superpic the diameter of the support used.

Wine-belt foundation: advantages and disadvantages, recommendations for construction

Wine-belt foundation: advantages and disadvantages, recommendations for construction

  • At the bottom of the wells, you should create a sandy pillow with a height of 15-20 cm. Fastened sand moisturizes and good tamper.
  • Asbestos pipes are inserted into the wells, which first on 30-40 cm are poured with concrete, and then pipes are raised by 20 cm. As a result of these manipulations, concrete follows, forming a sole. Its function – strengthening design, providing better adhesion supports with soil.
  • While concrete is grasped, produce vertical pipe alignment, using the level.
  • After pouring the base of the pipe, its reinforcement is performed – the grid is inserted into it, made of the bound metal wire of steel rods.

The height of the lattice must exceed the height of the pipe so that the lattice reaches the top of the base tape.

Wine-belt foundation: advantages and disadvantages, recommendations for construction

  • On the surface, a wooden formwork is performed, reinforced at the corners of bars and reinforced from the inside by reinforcement. The latter is a rod associated with each other with a wire and forming a grid. It is necessary to properly adhere to each other of piles and ribbon fittings – this ensures the strength and monolithicness of the entire system.
  • The next stage is the fill of piles and formwork concrete. At this stage, it is important to pour the solution in such a way as to avoid the accumulation of air bubbles in the thickness of concrete. For this, deep vibrators are used, and in the absence of a device, you can use a conventional rod, a pile concrete surface in several places.

Wine-belt foundation: advantages and disadvantages, recommendations for construction

Wine-belt foundation: advantages and disadvantages, recommendations for construction

  • The surface of the concrete is aligned and protected by observing material from the impact of precipitation. In the process of set of concrete strength, it is important to observe the temperature and humidity regime. In hot weather, the surface should be moisturized.
  • After soaring the concrete, formwork is removed. Specialists recommend immediately to carry out waterproofing of the material because it is distinguished by hygroscopicity. Moisture saturation leads to a freezing and cracking of the foundation. In this case, you can apply rolled materials (rubberoid, modern membrane films) or bitumen-polymer coating waterproofing. To improve adhesion with a waterproofing layer, the concrete surface is pre-treated with primers and antiseptics.
  • The construction of the foundation is usually completed by its insulation, which allows to reduce heat loss in the house, achieve a favorable microclimate. As a heater, polystyrene foam plates are usually used for a special composition, or polyurethane foam, sprayed on the surface of the foundation.

Wine-belt foundation: advantages and disadvantages, recommendations for construction

Wine-belt foundation: advantages and disadvantages, recommendations for construction

Tips

To achieve the smoothness of the outer walls of the tape allows the use of polyethylene. They wore the inner part of the wooden formwork, after which the concrete solution is poured.

User feedback and advice of professionals make it possible to conclude that the fill solution should be prepared from the cement of varying strength of at least M500. Less durable brands will not provide due reliability and monolithic design, have insufficient indicators of moisture resistance and frost resistance.

The optimal is considered a solution of 1 part of cement and 5 parts of sand and plasticizers.

Wine-belt foundation: advantages and disadvantages, recommendations for construction

Wine-belt foundation: advantages and disadvantages, recommendations for construction

In concreting, a solution of a solution in a formwork from a height of more than 0.5-1 m is unacceptable. Unacceptable movement of concrete inside the formwork with a shovel – you need to rearrange the mixer. Otherwise, concrete will lose its properties, and there is a risk of displacement of the reinforcing reinforcing lattice.

Filing the formwork follows one reception. The maximum break in the work should not be more than 2 hours – only can be guaranteed the monolith and integrity of the foundation.

In summer, for protection against dehydration, the foundation is covered with sawdust, burlap, which is periodically moisturized periodically. In winter, heated tape is needed, for which heating cable is laid along its entire length. It is left until the foundation will take final strength.

Comparing the strength of the strength of the reinforcement of reinforcement rods and welding makes it possible to conclude that the second method is preferable.

Wine-belt foundation: advantages and disadvantages, recommendations for construction

When introducing screw piles, it is important to monitor their vertical position. Usually two employees rotate scans or levers, screwing down the base, and one more follows the accuracy of the position of the element.

Easy this work allows preliminary drilling of well, the diameter of which should be less than the support, and the depth is 0.5 m. Similar technology will provide strictly vertical position of pile.

Finally, homemade masters have adapted household power tools for screwing piles. This requires a 1.5-2 kW drill, which is fastened with piles by means of a special gearbox gear, characterized by a gear ratio of 1/60. After launching a drill rotates pile, and the employee remains to control the vertical.

Wine-belt foundation: advantages and disadvantages, recommendations for construction

Before buying piles, make sure that the anti-corrosion layer is safe. You can do this by studying the documentation supplied to the products. It is also recommended to try to scratch the surface of the piles edge of coins or keys – ideally do it will not succeed.

Installation of piles can be kept under negative temperatures. But this is only possible if the soil is freezing not more than 1 m. When freezing on a large depth, special equipment must be used.

Pouring concrete is better to lead in the warm season, since otherwise the use of special additives and heating concrete.

Wine-belt foundation: advantages and disadvantages, recommendations for construction

How to build a belt foundation with your own hands, you can learn from the following video.

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