What should be the depth of the bonding foundation?

Builders strive to always make their work simpler and cheap, reduce time loss. The complexity and complexity of the foundation works when choosing a ribbon type of base turns out to be optimal, which led its most popularity. However, it is important to take into account all the subtleties, and avoid frequent technical errors.

Peculiarities

Ribbon foundation should be armed at the perimeter of the house, including under the inner carriages walls. Often, this foundation is constructed under heavy houses from natural stone, bricks or concrete blocks. But it is also compatible with buildings having reinforced concrete floors. Another advantage of the tape is its suitability for the placement of basements and cellar. Slab structures to equip with such rooms is much more complicated, and sometimes it is impossible at all.

Already a general description shows that the depth of the ribbon is usually quite large. However, the simplicity of the used technology justifies its use in low-rise buildings and with the construction of utility facilities. Ribbon bases are also well operating even where there is a risk of uneven shrinkage of the building. This is usually due to the inhomogeneous soil composition having various mechanical characteristics. When construction, the basement can be used the designs of the foundation in the form of finished capital walls.

The service period is highly dependent on the material applied. So, concrete and brownstones can work for up to two centuries in a row. But much depends on:

  • rendered load and its change;
  • the quality of the applied materials;
  • characteristics of the solution;
  • properties of the soil and climatic parameters of the area.

The tape can be performed in monolithic form, from precast blocks or combining these two approaches.

    For the manufacture of the foundation, except concrete and butt stone, sometimes their mixture is used or brickwork. The tape is made both in the form of a direct circuit, and with breaks, geometric shape – a rectangle or a trapezium. In any case, the width is taken no less than that of the wall, but ideally – more per 100-150 mm. A wide variety of types of ribbon foundation does not mean that they can be chosen arbitrarily, there are quite strict building standards.

    Regulatory requirements

    The construction of the foundation tape of small bookmarks under a single-storey house is possible even on a pillow of sand and gravel, it helps save money and speed up the production of work without risk. But you can only perform such work on certain soils:

    • unwilling to begged;
    • completely dry;
    • characterized by uniform freezing.

    The reinforced concrete ribbon with a small plug under a small private house is made in a width of 0.3-0.5 m under the ground, the height of the base is the smaller 0.3 m. For the greatest accuracy of work begin with marking, then digging trenches, the walls of which should be vertically even. Small locking allows you to do with trenches with a depth of 0.5 and width from 0.6 to 0.8 m. When the notches are dug and aligned, a sand pillow is made 200-400 mm. It is supposed to rub it, because the denser the base, the less will be over time the drawdown of the whole house.

    The flow of sand is produced in layers, 150 mm, it is required to moisten it before rambling. For the highest mechanical strength from above, gravel with watering with liquid concrete solution.

      To form a formwork, use a 2 cm thick with a thickness of 2 cm. Instead, you can take more:

      • slate in the form of flat sheets;
      • sheet metal;
      • Faneru.

      Strengthening of the formwork is made using spacers and supporting stakes, it must be recovered by vertical and horizontally. From the inside the design is paved with dense waterproofing material. So that the necessary thickness of this material is less, you should select the depth of the bookmark, focusing on the level and movement of groundwater.

      The foundation in the form of a ribbon for a double-decker house of bricks is placed in the pit, covered with 0.3 m of sand. Since the house will have to equip the bathrooms, it is recommended to add on top of the water and sewer pipes with a tie of cement and sand with a thickness of up to 0.1 m.

        The waterproofing is placed on the frozen tie, but the heat-insulating layer is not always needed. Then there is a frame created from the reinforcing steel network, then formwork. Only after that and you can pour ribbon as such. The sole of the base under the house must necessarily go to 200-250 mm deeper than the freezing line. Houses from foam blocks are easier than similar brick buildings.

        But it does not mean automatically that you can lay the foundation closer to the surface. We will have to analyze all parameters characterizing the geological structure of the site. Additionally, takes into account the severity provided by the project, furniture products, snow load, which may be present on the roof even for a short time. Among different options, the depth bookmark should be chosen by the one that can afford, according to material considerations. Soil in different locations freezes 100-180 cm, and in most cases the locking up to 150 cm is chosen.

        It is necessary to take into account that even when using information of geological exploration and lower standards, it allows you to find only the minimum necessary values.

        For a complete guarantee of the stability and prevention of risks, it is worth the sole of the foundation for 10 cm deep into addition.

        Trenches are thought out and diverted immediately with the reserve under all the necessary layers of subflowing, screeds and additional structures. Relatively light house on the ground, no closure, is allowed to put on a base of a depth of 600 mm, made in a floating ribbon format. Such a design must be carefully calculated, only this allows you to avoid destruction in gallery masses.

        Ribbon under the gasket should be calculated no less carefully than under the brick or other heavy material. The ease of overhead structures is deceptive, without careful calculations on the strength and support of the support ability they will be unreliable. The foundation project should be prepared, maximize the pushing force. For more heavily wall materials, it is insignificant, but lightweight aerated concrete blocks are easily pushed out of the soil.

        ATTENTION: Most architects believe that under aerated concrete, in general, it is better to drive piles, and not to fill the tape.

        If it is still made precisely the choice in favor of the filler support, in the calculation oriented primarily on:

        • Mass of the walls and the pressure on 1 pm. m;
        • Mass of all overlaps;
        • Severity of roofing materials and underlying structures.

        How to calculate?

        The depth of the occurrence mentioned in various sources and special literature is not the depth of the left trench. Under such a term, experts understand the gap separating the surface of the soil from the lowest plane of the foundation. Ribbon without Blowing is used extremely rarely, since its bearing capacity is extremely small. The minimum blowout occurs more often deep, but it’s capricious. We will have to calculate the action of soil driving forces.

        The depth of the bookmark can not be less than 50% of the depth of the soil freezing. If the level of ground liquid is high, it is usually 100-200 mm under the freezing line. Exception is made for rocky soils, gravel mass or sand-grain substrate. In the swampy soil, at the peat and the like bases of the ribbon will have to put below the problem layers. Sometimes enough trenches to the solid mass filled with sand; But such a decision can take exclusively prepared professionals.

        If the calculations it follows that you have to dig a trench unnecessarily deeply, you need to look for alternative solutions.

        The insulation of the foundation and the soil adjacent to it will help significantly reduce the necessary recess. Organization of high-quality drainage has a last role, it helps protect against the freezer. The sand pillow must be placed both under the ribbon itself and on the side of it. The best way to solve the problem is the combination approach – a combination of pillows, insulation and drainage structures.

        The average point of the bookmark changes depending on whether the house is heated or not, is it planned to do a basement. For unheated buildings, the reserve of the Blooming is 10%, and if the building is heated, 30% need.

        ATTENTION: Putting the ribbon deeper 150 cm is not recommended. Varcement is calculated by special coefficients. For clay and lining it is 0.23, for soil from large fragments of rocks – 0.34, for sand – 0.28.

        Ryt care for a simple concrete tape placed under the sheds, poultry houses and household buildings of a small value from 0.5 to 1 m deep into. For most such structures, besides the most massive, enough 80 cm. But a residential building, even a relatively small (one-story), must be fixed below, its root is at 2 meters. However, the differences are not limited to. With housing construction, the tape is supposed to reinforce that immediately increases its width.

        The formwork necessarily contains a lattice from the reinforcement rod. The bunch of rods is achieved due to the use of knitting wire. Strength after the fill is achieved in 28 – 42 days on average. Only on the solidified ribbon can be placed. When building a house with a basement, a trench technique is not suitable, which becomes obligatory. If you plan to build a two-storey and higher housing, you will have to apply standard blocks of increased strength; their height is certainly taken into account.

        Tips

        It is not recommended to cook trenches wider 400 mm. 0.2 m on the surplus and subtype. Only such layers give a real guarantee against sending.

        According to experts, for the formation of the foundation belt, the bulk method is worth taking cement category M-300.

        In order for the design to justify itself, the solution is formed only from pure water, the absence of clay and soil impurities in inert materials, strictly observe the proportions.

        The depth of a ribbon foundation under the house, the calculation and construction of a ribbon foundation is shown in the following video

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