We select the thickness of the insulation

All the house is associated with comfort, warmth and comfort. Heat in the house is created with the help of a high-quality heating system, but the insulation of the house or apartment remains an important factor, because it is often, especially in the houses of the old building, the state of the warming of the wall leaves much to be desired or absent at all.

For insulation, there is a specialized material – insulation, which is mounted on the outer walls, on the ceilings or gender.

Indoors (on the inside of the walls) do not usually do this. This is due to many factors, including the disregteriality of this classes.

An important indicator remains the thickness of the heat insulating material, which is specifically calculated under the required volumes of heating, area and temperature outside the window.

Why it is so important to calculate correctly?

In the modern world, thermal insulation is necessary not only for greater comfort, but also for saving. The cost of heating is tirelessly growing that it hits the pocket and stronger and stronger, and the task of the insulation is also in saving due to the deduction of heat.

A competently chosen thickness of both wall and floor or ceiling insulation allows you to reduce utility billing costs several times.

In winter, the heat is much longer held inside the room, and in the summer, on the contrary, it delays too much warmth from the street.

It seems to many that the greater the thickness of the plate heat insulation material – the more savings. But it is far from this: in the summer it will be cooler, and in the winter – much hotter, but the design of the wall can undergo deformation and destruction. The smaller thickness can lead to an additional increase in energy consumed.

Insulation of the construction of the house (ceiling, walls, floor) – the necessary part in repair or construction (both in a residential building and in buildings designed for people’s work). Selection of high-quality materials for thermal insulation – an important point in this business, but much more important is the competent selection of the thickness of the material. Factors depend on this: the durability of the structure and technical characteristics in direct operation of the building.

Between the first and second floor, the presence of air ducts, and at the top – chimney.

If you compare the thermal conductivity of different raw materials, you can see that the mineral wool plate holds it better than the design of ceramzite concrete blocks.

Why need heat insulation?

Many people do not fully understand how the thickness of the insulation affects the durability and technical characteristics of the structure. In simple language, thermal insulation saving to pay for utilities, After all, heat loss is reduced by almost a third, and in some cases – half.

Incidentally, the side effect of thermal insulation remains, which is sound insulation. This is especially important for apartment buildings in an urban feature where the sounds from the street can deliver extra discomfort. Extremely low sound insulation and panel houses.

In the event that we are talking about personal construction with your own hands, for example, your own mansion or country dwellings, the thermal insulation materials make it possible to reduce the cost of construction, replacing materials for building walls.

So, using thick polystyrene or mineral wool slabs (within 10 cm wide), it is possible to replace the walls of the brick. The load on these walls is obliged to be small, as a result of this, this method is suitable for single-storey buildings, building a veranda or houses for guests.

Requirements for thermal insulation materials

There are a large number of requirements for thermal insulation materials, which are allocated depending on the operational load for the new structure, weather criteria, material capabilities, etc.

One of the main and important characteristics of thermal insulation is the technical ability to conduct and maintain heat. It depends on various factors, such as: the structure and porosity of the material, its density, as well as the level of absorption of moisture and humidity.

Thermal conductivity differences three grads of thermal conductivity:

  • BUT – Low thermal conductivity and heat resistant (0.06 W / kV. m);
  • B – average thermal conductivity and heat resistant (0.06 – 0.115 W / kV. m);
  • IN – High thermal conductivity and heat resistant (0.115 – 0.175 W / kV. m).

To guarantee high-quality thermal insulation of the facade (end), whether it is a high-rise structure or a personal small mansion, thermal insulation is obliged to be quite durable and durable, in order to be able to withstand the weight of the final finish.

As a result, it is necessary to carefully choose the material based on what the wall will be covered at the external finishing stage. Tile, for example, weighs quite a lot, therefore, it is necessary for a solid base, but the wallpaper (as well as a cork cover) will be perfectly attached in almost all cases, but it is extremely recommended to apply such a coating to the street.

Apart from the fact that thermal insulation is obliged to be the most part of the steamproof, it should not absorb moisture. This material should not be ignited or burning, as well as maintain combustion (should fade after ignition), to identify harmful and toxic substances, and when the temperature drops should not be exposed to strain.

Ways of insulation

Reducing heat loss depends on the correct selection of material, as well as on its location on the building. There are several ways to insulate walls, which differ in their properties, having and advantages and disadvantages.

Distinguish the following methods for wall insulation:

  • Wall. It is an ordinary brick partition with a SNUPOVSKY thickness from 40 cm.
  • Multilayer isolation. It is the walls of the wall on both sides. It is done only at the time of the structure of the structure, otherwise, it will take way to dismantle part of the wall.
  • Exterior insulation. The most common method is carried out by insulating the outside of the wall, after which the finishing layer is applied. Of the disadvantages of this method – the need for additional hydro and vaporizolation.

What are the dimensions of the material?

In the event that the thermal insulation material is very thin, the cold and dampness is seeping through the wall, but also an excessive thickness also for nothing.

The standard dimensions of the material are considered:

  • 75 mm;
  • 150 mm;
  • 60 mm;
  • 200 mm;
  • 70 mm;
  • 80 mm;
  • 50 mm;
  • 15 mm.

In case the layer of heat-insulating material is less than a couple of centimeters, the walls will skip the cold and calm the walls.

    For example, a dew point, which is located outside the facility, will shift slightly in the wall, due to the fact that the thermal insulation material will not be able to keep it. As a result – condensate will appear on the plane of the wall, it will become slowly dying, molding, mold and fungus will appear.

    A very thick layer of thermal insulation will lead to unjustified costs. Any good owner wants to build not just a high-quality and reliable house, but also save to the maximum, and a thick layer of isolation costs good money. Also, with a large thickness of thermal insulation, natural ventilation from the inside of the walls is not observed, as a result of which inside the building it becomes very stuffy and uncomfortable. In addition, if the insulation is performed on the inside of the wall, the thick layer of the material will take a very large amount of free space, having reduced the square of the room both visually and physically.

    That is why it is important to be able to calculate the thickness of thermal insulation.

    Another very significant point – the determination of the thickness of the heat insulator depends directly from the raw material from which the wall was made. Based on this information, it can be concluded about heat-conductivity and the heat engineering properties of this part of the structure. Such data make it possible to qualify heat transfer on any square square meter. The absolute list of these materials is indicated in SNIP NO2-3-79. The density of the insulation is different, but usually used from 0.6 – 1000 kg / m3.

    In modern construction, foam blocks are often used to which certain requirements for thermal insulation are applied:

    • HSOP – 6000;
    • Resistance in the heat transfer and thermal transfer of walls – Over 3.5 s / kV. m / w;
    • Resistance in heat transfer and thermal transfer ceilings – Over 6C / kV. m / w.

      If you intend to put some layers of heat insulator, the heat transfer resistance characteristics are calculated as the sum of all layers. It is necessary to take into account the heat-conductivity and properties of the material from which the walls are cooked.

      Calculation schemes and calculators

      In order to perform the heat-engineering calculation of the heat insulator, it is necessary to take into account a few moments that are not easy to understand inexperienced builder. The most necessary indicator is the characteristic of the wall and climatic features of the territory where construction is underway, as well as their ratio. Once you have decided on the technology of work and chose the desired material, you should proceed to calculations.

      Required advice: for the insulation of the first floor in a private or apartment building, it is recommended to choose the same material from the same manufacturer from one party.

      Mindedly, it is necessary to insulate pipelines and other highways from the streets that lead inside housing. This is one of the most potentially dangerous places of the emergence of a huge local heat loss and penetration through them (it takes up to 30% of heat).

      When you were determined with the performance technology and chose the appropriate material, you can start calculations.

      What data need?

      In the thermal conductivity of the walls and the ceiling there are certain minimum indicators. To calculate it is necessary to use the formulas:

      • Wall: R = 3,6-R;
      • Ceiling: R = 6-R.

      After receiving the numeric value, the difference should be calculated by the solar thickness according to the following formula: P = R * k, where the p-desired thickness of the insulation.

      When using thermal insulation from foam or mineral wool, the recommended value is 10 cm (in brick houses, as well as in houses with panel walls, loggias, on the balcony).

      The coefficient of heat transfer of all materials of the wall or other sites in the residential building is determined separately, depends on different climatic conditions and is individual:

      HSOP = (TB-TSR) x * z, where:

      • TB – average temperature indoors;
      • Tot – average ambient temperature;
      • Zot – the duration of the heating season in days (if you have autonomous heating, then take a value based on personal experience)


      For those who do not want to teach these formulas by heart or does not have the ability to calculate everything on their own, remembering different clarifications, there are a huge many online calculators.

      They are specially created for the selection of optimal thickness and take into account various many factors and characteristics of both insulation and walls. Some of them have a built-in range of goods in which you do not need to enter additional values ​​- it will be enough to choose the type of insulation, its brand and model, as well as the type of material from which the wall is made.

      Very popular among such calculators is Rockwool, which is developed by experienced construction professionals. This calculator also calculates the energy efficiency of the insulation, issuing all the necessary values ​​in the report. Also for those who do not want to understand the functionality, the site of this calculator provides a simple step-by-step instruction, in which it will not be difficult to figure out: just click on the button “Start the calculation” and follow the prompts.

      Thus, even the newcomer in construction can calculate the necessary thickness of the insulation. However, it is necessary to be guided by useful tips from the pro.

      It should be remembered that when Ignoring the calculations of the thickness of the heat-insulating material, a number of problems may appear, including it may be harmed by the structure of the structure itself, which is almost impossible to correct, and if possible, it will require additional, much higher costs (will have to wait for urgent or overhaul from the management company).

      How to calculate the thickness of the insulation, look in the following video.

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