Even despite the widespread use of modern building materials, traditional brick remains very in demand. But it is necessary to take into account the features of its application. For certain types of masonry and need specific blocks.
General principles of masonry
Preparing for the construction of brick walls with their own hands, it is necessary to show the same accuracy, responsibility that is peculiar to professional masonry. And the first step is to always take into account the specifics of the brick, its structure. The planes of this material have the established names in the construction practice. These names are clearly fixed in the State Standard. So, the “bed” is customary to refer to the largest side, which in relation to the masonry can be from above or below.
“Bed” forms the so-called planes of the first category. A spoon builders call an extended vertical face that can fit inside either outside. And the post is the end, often looking towards the opposite end either out.
Only extremely rarely there is a need to put the taching side somehow different. Having understood with these moments, you can move to the rules of laying (or, as experts, “cuts”).
Lines for which bricks are laid out, they will definitely go horizontally, while also mutually parallel. This rule is due to the fact that the brick is well tolerates compression, but the bending is bad for him. If you violate the recommendation, the bending moment may damage single bricks. Another basic principle: the stumps and spoons are at an angle of 90 degrees both among themselves and in relation to the “bed”.
The consequences of such a rule are:
- strictly weatheted geometry of individual bricks;
- Uniform (correctly selected) thickness of the seams;
- Lack of horizontal and vertical deviations in all rows.
Do not observe the second principle, amateur builders may soon “enjoy” the type of cracking wall. And the third principle reads: the mechanical load from each brick should be distributed at least two adjacent blocks. In addition to the three base moments, it is necessary to pay attention to the thickness of the veins. Its category is determined by sharing the actual width on the width of the chokes.
It is customary to allocate the following options (in meters):
- Pollikirpich (0.12);
- brick (0.25);
- a half of the brick (0.38 m);
- Two bricks (0.51 m).
Sometimes masonry in two and a half bricks. The thickness of such walls is 0.64 m. Such designs are justified only when the highest security is needed. Even thicker walls in residential construction are not used, as it is too difficult to build them and expensive. If the wall thickness is 1.5 bricks and more, taken into account when calculating the longitudinal seams between the adjacent stones.
Varieties of bricks
In addition to the varieties of masonry, it is important to know what they mean certain bricks names. Full-time ceramic bricks use to build especially important designs. We are talking about buildings and their elements that should be extremely stable and stable in any circumstances, regardless of the load. But due to the severity of full-scale brick, it is used mainly in the construction of bearing walls. Apply such blocks also for finishing, for the secondary elements is impractical – they are too heavy and overly enhance the load on the foundation.
In places where the level of mechanical stresses is less, and the requirements for thermal insulation is higher, widespread use finds a hollow ceramic brick. Usually its carrier ability is enough for the construction of major walls, since in private house-building, the extreme load is rarely found. Silicate brick also happens both hollow and full, the area of its use is the same as a ceramic analogue. But along with these two varieties, several other types appeared over the past decades. Thanks to modern technologies, you can use another hyper compressed brick.
The main component of this material is small fragments of breeds obtained by an open way from quarries. So that they formed a single integer, high-quality portland cement. Depending on the methods of processing and plans of technologists, hyperpressed brick can be perfectly smooth or resembling “Ripped stone”. But gradation in construction concerns not only the chemical composition and technology of obtaining bricks. It is customary to sort them yet in purpose.
Construction, he is an ordinary brick designed to build capital walls. When using it, the subsequent finish of the facade and measures for its special protection. Facing brick, sometimes called facade, necessarily produced without the slightest defects. Chemically, it can be the most different, including hyperpressive, but silicate facing does not apply in places with high humidity.
Regardless of the specific type of bricks, there should be a “bed” length of 0.25 m, otherwise the simultaneous use of different types of blocks will be impossible.
Whatever bricks put builders, which would be the purpose of building and the scope of work, be sure to need a special toolkit. Traditionally use Kelmu: it is appreciated for the convenience of capture and accurately calculated angle. But both Kelma and all other tools applied by masonry belong to one of two groups. This is a working tool (which helps build walls, other structures) and used for measurement, for control. When working, bricklayers use:
- Kirk (special hammer);
- shovel (for operations with mortar).
To accurately measure the lines, horizontals, verticals and planes, apply:
- Folding meters;
- Intermediate pendulums;
- corner dealers;
- intermediate orders;
- Special templates.
Types and methods
Having got acquainted with the varieties of the tool used by bricklayers, with kinds of bricks, it is important to see what kind of brickwork types.
And the first of them turns out a spoonful series. So called stripes of calculations, where the long sidewall adjoins the outer surface of the wall. In addition to spoonful, the tile rows should be used – they look out with a short side. In the interval between them there is a so-called chapter (additional bricks).
There are several subspecies of multiple laying bricks.
When you work back:
- Right hand with the help of Kelma align the bed;
- partially crushed the solution;
- pressed it to the vertical face just laid bricks;
- On the left lay out a new unit;
- Putting a brick, pressed to Kelme;
- remove it;
- Clean the surplus of cement mixture.
Multi-row display can be done differently. Tilting a bit brick, the solution is gaining to the choke edge. It is made at 0.1-0.12 m from before the laid out block. Running a brick on the laid place, check the correctness of its installation and pressed to bed. Before final consolidation is checked so that the solution filled the entire seam.
In the word “bandage”, bricklayers denote not to use some nodes, but the scheme for the placement of building stones. Inexperienced builders often ignore this moment, believing that it is only necessary to put bricks individually correctly, “and the row will be in itself”. Chain, it is one-row, bandage implies strict alternation of tychk and spoonful rows. This technique guarantees the reliability and stability of the wall, but then it will not be able to decorate with decorative brick outside.
Additional hardification is practiced both with a multi-row and at a single-row. It is used when creating:
- arched elements;
- door and window openings;
- Other outbreaks and elements exposed to high load.
Depending on the direction under which the mechanical effect is applied, reinforcement is produced vertically or horizontally. Reinforcing elements are introduced into a mortar when it has already grabbed a bit, but still saves plasticity. Determine the dominant load direction is very difficult.
This manages only to professional engineers, taking into account:
- seismic impacts;
- Move ports.
The severity of the brick forces the builders to take care not only about the strength of the structure, but also on the decrease in its mass. Lightweight masonry implies that the outer wall will be posted in Pollipich. The inner layer is put in 1 or 1.5 bricks. These designs are separated by a gap, which is calculated very carefully. Lightweight masonry, notice, never runs on a single-row scheme – it is done only by a multiple way.
Strictly speaking, decorative laying, in contrast to the lightweight, is not some specific species. Often do it on the already mentioned “chain” scheme. But there is also “English”, it is “block” technique – in this case, the tilenses and spoonful rows change each other in series, and the jokes are strictly vertical. “Flemish” type of decorative masonry implies that the joints are moving on 0.5 bricks. When choosing a “Dick” version, you need to change the stumps and spoons chaotic.
But besides the listed types, there are still masonry options. Above already mentioned in brief about the well-deployment of bricks. So called the combined three rows.
The outer wall is prepared using a pair of partitions, the thickness of each of which is 0.5 bricks or even less. Well structures are obtained by connecting partitions with brick bridges, which are horizontally either vertically.
Basically, inside there are traditional bricks, and outside:
- ceramic stone;
- silicate blocks;
The benefits of this method are associated with saving costly building materials and with a decrease in the thermal conductivity of the walls. But it is necessary to reckon with a decrease in the strength and penetration of cold air. Often well leafing improves, removing walls with insulation with clay and other substances. If you need to additionally increase the strength of the wall, use concrete or slag. These insulation are well opposed to mechanical deformation, but the slag can be soaked in moisture.
The brickwork laying of the sewage pits has its own features. Most often for it, a red brick of increased strength is applied. Corner blocks (lighthouses) put first and thoroughly align. In the absence of experience, it is advisable to control all laying bricks by level. Prepared bricklayers usually check themselves every 2 or 3 rows. Waterproofing is also required.
Regardless of where the brick wall is placed, it is necessary to take care of the design of the corners. It is they who cause most difficulties in inexperienced and non-acceptable builders. In the cord, the diagonals and direct angles are uniform. At the very beginning, a trial (without solution) is carried out. It will make it possible to accurately assess where additives are needed, how to locate them correctly.
Complete the overview of masonry species appropriate on the creation of brick furnaces and fireplaces. They are made only from fire-resistant ceramic full-fledged blocks. Products with voids inside obviously unsuitable. It is best to erect ovens with the help of ready-made clay and sand mixtures that are sold in any specialized store. Ceramic brick before display is soaked for 3 minutes, and refractory products are put dry, except sometimes riding and removing dust.
Safety in performance
Any brickwork must be built very carefully, in compliance with all precautions. Before the start of construction check the tool. Both in working parts and on the handles are unacceptable the slightest defects, burrs. Rate how the handles are attracted, they are tightly held in a reserved place. Such checks should be carried out at the beginning and end of each day, as well as when renewing work after any interruption.
Masonry should work only in mittens. Special attention is paid to the correctness of the construction of forests and reliability of stairs. Put tools and materials where they can interfere with the passage is prohibited. The forests are equipped with sideboards from the boards, and if you need to send cars on them, special rollers are preparing. Stairs for which they climb the forests and descend from them, must have a railing.
In the next video you are waiting for the types of brickwork and the features of it.