Significant loads from residential (and not only) Building takes on not only the foundation, but also the base. In addition, the latter is subjected to negative external factors like atmospheric precipitation, as well as the front part of the construction. That is why it is important to select high-quality and durable materials for the base, which will serve for many years without problems. Today we will get a closer look at such a building material, as a base brick, and learn how it must be properly stacked.
Before looking for a specific brick species for the construction of the base, should find out what requirements he should answer.
- Such a building material must have sufficient density and rigidity. Too plastic and fragile products will not fit. Suitable brick should not be subject to deformation under the influence of serious loads.
- Brick for the base must necessarily be resistant to wear. He should not “be afraid” of atmospheric precipitation. In addition, this building material should be moisture-resistant. Otherwise he will last long and quickly starts to collapse.
- These building materials should not be afraid of low temperature and frost modes. The water absorption of the base brick must be at the maximum low. Otherwise, building materials simply go cracked and fails.
- Building material for the base must have standard dimensional parameters. If the material meets this requirement, its laying will be simple and rapidly, with her can cope and a poorly friendly homemade master.
- Brick for the base must be distinguished by a fairly good and reliable clutch with a solution selected for construction work.
- Product must be environmentally friendly. The use of toxic products will not be the best solution.
- It makes no sense to buy too expensive brick for socle. This building material should have an adequate price.
- The type of base brick is also important. He must be aesthetic and attractive.
Why need a base?
Brick base designs are manufactured in order to:
- ensure the full protection of the wall bases from entering their structure of low temperatures and destructive moisture;
- form the correct horizontal plane for subsequent masonry execution;
- Equally distribute the load on the foundation foundation;
- provide the required floor level of the lowest floor;
- Make a higher technical underground;
- make the construction more aesthetic and solid.
Of all the above tasks, we can conclude that for the construction of the base, it is necessary to select only high-quality brick, which will easily transfer large loads.
For the construction of a basement design, you can use different types of bricks. Consider the characteristics of the most popular and frequently encountered options.
Very often, when designing the base, silicate brick is applied. This building material is characterized by high strength, but it has an impressive weight, so it is not always convenient to work with it. The level of water absorption of silicate is approximately 8-16%. Such products are manufactured in accordance with the pressing technology from a special composition prepared from quartz sand and lime. From such components, very strong and durable blocks are obtained. However, they have one serious minus – they differ quite low water resistance.
According to experts, for the middle band, the specified building material will not fit. Even if in such circumstances, the walls of the house are made of reliable silicate bricks, the base is usually made from more waterproof materials.
Often in the construction of the head structures of the wizard addressed to the popular clay brick. This building material is made with the involvement of heat treatment technology, that is, “baked”.
Clay brick is good because it is more waterproof, especially if you compare it with silicate products. But it must be borne in mind that it is completely unimportant, a full or hollow material – both options will actively absorb moisture into your structure. This quality has an impact on the frost resistance of brick structures. In the case of freezing in the pores, the water begins to expand, and therefore the material itself.
If you pick up clay bricks for the manufacture of the base, then you better rely on their brand. Products with different labeling and characteristics differ. For example, some models are produced by frost-resistant, while others are not prepared for low temperatures. For example, M150 brand bricks can smoothly transfer more than 60 frost cycles and thawing. The higher the brand number, the higher the frost resistance.
Ceramic acid resistant
Excellent performance characteristics boast ceramic acid resistant brick. It has the following qualities:
- resistant to dampness and moisture;
- “It’s not afraid of the temperature differences;
- is frost-resistant;
- it is quite low water absorption;
- has good sound insulation qualities;
- Differs good heat insulation.
This common building material is characterized by high density, due to which even multi-storey structures are allowed from it. Another important feature of ceramic brick is its resistance to hazardous environments. This quality is very relevant for the base, because both in the soil, and in atmospheric precipitation there are various chemically active components.
As part of such products, there is such a necessary component as clay, supplemented by dunite.
The degree of water absorption of clinker brick reaches a mark of 3-5%. Like a popular clinker tiles, such a building material is made from special clay varieties in accordance with single firing technology in high temperatures.
The carrying capacity of the clinker brick is much higher than that of the standard Red Building Material. In addition, it is distinguished by good decorative qualities and stability of the color. Many firms provide a guarantee for this product up to 100 years. However, it is necessary to keep in mind that there is such products more expensive than other options.
Criterias of choice
If you want to build a neat and high-quality base, then the brick will need to choose the appropriate. In this case, it should be relying on the following important criteria.
- Same color and shape of bricks in the party. Be sure to pay attention to these parameters. If individual bricks in the package will differ in their own way, it will immediately rush into the eyes. Erecting from such materials will look like a disharmonious. If the bricks will differ in the form, then build the correct construction will be almost impossible or extremely difficult.
- Surface. Take a look at the surface of the selected bricks for the construction of the base. It must necessarily be perfectly smooth and whole – cracks or chips should not be viewed on it. If such are still observed, then it is better to give up from buying such products – perhaps they will not last long and will not stand serious loads under the weight of the same brick house.
- Colors. Look at the color of bricks. He not only should be the same in all bricks. Color of these building materials should be quite bright and uniform. Dull and whiteways should not be.
- Price. Of course, each consumer wishes to save and buy not only high quality, but also inexpensive brick. It should be careful. Materials with suspiciously low costs may be low-quality and not designed for serious loads.
- A store. Acquire a brick for the construction of the basement in proven outlets, known in your city. From market and bench products it is better to refuse – it rarely happens really high quality and reliable. Preferably, when buying, request from the seller the quality certificate on which all the characteristics of the building material will be indicated. If you were denied at the request, it is better not to risk and go to another store.
How to lay out your own hands?
The base structure of the brick is quite possible to build with your own hands. The main thing is to use only high-quality building materials and take into account all the features of such work. Get acquainted with them.
- It is important to take into account that the thickness of the base structure will always depend on the materials from which the facade is made. If it is made of brick, the width of the base should be at least 51 cm. If we are talking about the brusade house, then there is enough base of 25 cm.
- As a rule, the masonry makes 1.5 or 2 bricks in width. The total height of the base must be at least 30 cm.
- To put a brick true and reliably, advise to let the cement mortar with a brand not lower than M200 with lime and sainted sand. The proportions must be such: 1 part of cement to 6.7 sand, as well as 0.7 clay or lime.
- It is important to monitor the consistency of the composition. It should be thick as dough. On 1 part of the cement usually take about 0.8 parts of the water. In order to make too much liquid composition, it is permissible to mix more lime or clay. Also, experts advise to mix a small part of plasticizers (in the role of these components it is allowed to use washing powder).
- In order to effectively hydroize the base structure, it is possible to put the rubberoid sheets or only. They need to put the foundation covered with bitumen mastic. Waterproofing in 2 layers with a supplement in the form of all the same mastic.
- Brick base necessarily need to be correctly insulated with suitable coatings.
- In order to outside the base, it was reliably protected from adverse external factors and atmospheric precipitation, it will be needed to complete with high-quality finishing finish. It will not only protect the design, but will make it more attractive and aesthetic.
Before starting construction work, you must make sure of the horizontal basis of the foundation foundation. Moreover, it does not matter what the foundation is built on the site – a ribbon, columnar or any other. In his correct version, you will need to make sure anyway.
If you chose a silicate brick for the construction of the base, then you should remember that it is even very durable, but quickly absorbs liquid, after which it swells and loses its strength quality. This building material is recommended to apply only if you live in a region with a sufficiently dry climate. It will take care of the good waterproofing of the basement.
If you have not been able to find the perfect brick for organizing the base, it can be built from concrete.
Before moving directly to the installation work, it should be calculated, in which volume you need to buy building materials. To do this, it is permissible to use online calculators and services on construction portals or try to make all the calculations yourself. Of course, in most cases, people turn to the first way, because there is much more difficult to be mistaken.
Experts strongly recommend purchasing a brick for a base with a small margin, given the possibility of a collision with defective parts or damage during transportation.
The base brick is often complemented by a different kind of facing materials. Especially popular today beautiful stone masonry. It looks harmoniously with most existing facades of different shades. Thanks to such a supplement, the dwelling will look much more interesting.
Masonry solution can be bought not only in the finished condition, but also to prepare yourself. It takes cement and sand in the ratio of 1 to 3.
Camping the base structure of bricks, the solution should be laid in thickness not more than 1 cm. Comply with this rule is especially important if the foundation of the structure is made of reinforced concrete blocks.
Many users are interested in whether it is permissible for the organization of the base to use a brick that did not undergo firing in the process of manufacture. Yes, the use of such building materials is allowed, but experts advise to give preference to blocks that are still transferred to this procedure. It is recommended to apply to the use of unreleased bricks only if there is no possibility to be purchased with other materials.
Do not forget about the insulation of the base, if you build a residential structure. It is also necessary to take into account that there are three varieties of base structures – incoming, jack with external walls and recessed. The latter is always constructed for residential buildings at a depth of 6 cm below the outdoor wall bases.
On how to choose and lay out the base brick, see the following video.