Silicate brick is a relatively young building material that is in great demand from buyers. It has many differences from ordinary clay bricks, but also applied in many spheres. We will get acquainted closer with this popular building material, we learn what its main properties and composition.
What it is?
Silicate brick is an autoclave building material, which prevails quartz sand. It makes such a material by dry presses, after which it is treated with water vapor. Such products are perfectly the right form.
Their edges do not have chips.
Quartz sand (necessarily thorough cleaning), air lime and, of course, are used as the feedstock for the manufacture of silicate brick. The manufacturing technology of this building material provides 3 main stages:
- preparation of the raw material;
- Pressing raw bricks;
- Sending to autoclave.
Raw solution can be prepared by two methods. Consider more each of them.
- Drum method. With it, all components of the solution in a dry state are poured into a special drum. There they are mixed until the homogeneous state is gaining. Then the resulting composition is treated with ferry. In the course of the processing, it moistened, while there is a gradual quenching of lime.
- Silent way. In this method, all ingredients go to the agitator. There is a mixing of sand, water and lime. After that, the moistened mixture is sent to the silo, where it insists 10 hours.
The next step is the press of raw. Special forms for the press are poured with a raw material solution and sent to a special device. The pressing process is carried out under high pressure. After such processing, the raw material is sealing, almost all air is removed from its composition. Gaps between individual grains become minimal.
Then the dross in the autoclave. Already harvested details are sent to the equipment, where the direct bearing of raw raw bricks is underway. This process usually goes no more than 10-14 hours. During this time, the raw is hardening to the end and becomes the most durable.
At the end of all processes, the temperature of the pair in the autoclave is gradually reduced. If this will happen quickly, the product can split / crack, then it will be impossible to use it.
At the end, finished products are placed in special pallets.
Silicate brick – popular building material with many positive qualities. The product made in accordance with GOST has such important characteristics:
- a worthy level of strength;
- high density;
- water absorption;
- resistance to low temperatures;
- thermal conductivity;
- Sound absorption.
The strength characteristics of modern silicate bricks directly depend on its marking. If we proceed from the provisions of the GOST, there are several different series of silicate blocks (M75-M300). The numbers in this case denote the maximum load on 1 kV. cm. The more digit, the more strong it turns out the building material.
Choosing a brick for certain works, be sure to pay attention to the specified parameter, because the incorrectly selected brick with an inappropriate level of strength can be destroyed.
As for the density of silicate brick, it mainly depends on the specific type and model brand. For example, the density level of full-scale bricks can be from 1600 to 1900 kg / m. cubic. If we are talking about the hollow “counterparts”, then the density here will vary from 1000 to 1450 kg / m. cubic. The strength quality of silicate bricks affects the development of building materials. So, when saturated with moisture, this parameter is usually reduced.
Another important characteristic of silicate brick is water absorption. The coefficient of this parameter is depending on several factors, such as:
- material structure;
- Porosity percentage;
- Moisturization level during raw formation.
The absorption coefficient of moisture is affixed in the corresponding Guest. In accordance with this documentation, the level of water absorption of silicate bricks can be from 6 to 16%.
Frost resistance – technical characteristics of silicate brick. It indicates how many frost and defrost cycles to withstand this building material. Stability of products to frosts is denoted by the letter F, and digital values are represented by numbers from 15 to 100.
The thermal conductivity of these products depends on the distinctive features of their design. In this case, the main role is played by the structure of the brick – full-scale or hollow.
As for the sound insulation capacity of these products, it is 64 dB.
Pros and cons
Silicate brick on a par with the rest of building materials, has both advantages and disadvantages. First, you will get acquainted with the list of advantages of silicate.
- This material boasts excellent strength characteristics. It is very difficult to damage or destroy.
- Silicate brick is environmentally friendly. It does not harm neither a person nor the environment. In its composition there are no dangerous and toxic components that can cause serious damage to the health of the one who contact him.
- Silicate brick is also good because it is compatible with practically with any masonry solutions. It can be both standard cement-sand formulations and special glue products on a polymer basis. Wanted specialized composition do not have to.
- This building material can boast aesthetic appearance. It turns out neat buildings, keeping the external attractiveness for a long time.
- Silicate brick easily withstands temperature temperature up to 600 degrees. Moreover, it is not afraid of fire (not lit, does not support burning).
- This material is not afraid of low temperatures and frosts. Under the influence of these factors, silicate is not destroyed and not covered by cracks.
- Silicate brick buildings boast of good sound insulation qualities. They almost do not hear street sounds.
- For this building material characterized good vapor permeability. Thanks to this quality, a comfortable microclimate always takes place in housing from silicate.
- A characteristic feature of silicate brick is the perfect geometry. That is why it is very convenient to work with it, and as a result, it turns out neat and aesthetic structures.
- This building material is cheap.
And now we will understand what is bad can be said about silicate brick.
It is characterized by high thermal conductivity.
- He has an impressive weight, so it is quite difficult to work with him alone. Yes, and in transportation silicate is not particularly economical.
- This material is distinguished by high water absorption. Over time, this may lead to brick destruction.
- Silicate brick has a small size, so there is quite a lot for the manufacture of one or another construction, which is not always economically profitable. At the same time, a large number of small blocks takes a significant amount of solution.
- Silicat does not like the effect of too high temperatures (especially regular).
- Silicate brick does not have smooth forms and decorative additions.
What is different from ceramic?
Many buyers are confident that ceramic and silicate bricks are absolutely the same and do not have serious differences from each other. In fact, these materials are different. Conduct a comparison between these two types of bricks.
- The difference between silicate and ceramic materials is that the second is not afraid of the actions of high temperatures, and the first under their impact begins to crack. Silicat does not serve long if the fire or flue gases is constantly exposed to.
- If empties are present in silicate, they always have a cylinder form. These details are in the very center of the block. Ceramics of these elements are much more, they can have any shape, and are uniformly throughout the entire length of the block.
- Silicate brick is much more massive than ceramic.
- In terms of frost resistance, fire resistance and water resistance, silicate is inferior to ceramics.
- The difference between these products lies and in strength. Silicate bricks are considered the most reliable and strong in contrast to ceramic.
- Silicate costs cheaper ceramics.
Distinguish several subspecies of silicate brick. Each of them has its own characteristics.
In the content of silicate bricks there may be a combination of different raw materials. Based on this, there are several subspecies of this building material.
- Lime-sand. The most popular subspecies of silicate brick used most often. It contains 7-10% of the lime and 90-93% of quartz sand.
- Corolor-lime. This product contains 75-80% ash, as well as 20-25% limes.
- Lime-slag. This building material is produced using a combination of porous slag and lime.
Also distinguished bricks:
Based on direct appointment, silicate bricks are divided into the following types:
- Private – Such products at the end of all works are completely closed using finishing material;
- Facial (or facing) – such building materials are bought for cladding of different structures.
In addition, silicate bricks are released:
- Unpainted (these are white, light gray products);
- painted (such options are manufactured with the introduction of a pigment ingredient).
Sizes and weight
Modern bricks have the following length parameters, Thickness and widths:
- 250x120x65 mm;
- 250x120x88 mm;
- 250x120x38 mm.
As for the weight, it may be different:
- Simple single options usually weigh from 3.2 to 3.7 kg;
- Thickened half-and-and-half bricks weigh from 3.7 to 5 kg;
- Double bricks differ weighing 5.4 kg.
Before going to the store for silicate bricks, it is necessary to competently calculate how much this building material will be in 1 cubic. M. Masonch. Based on the accurate calculations, it will be possible to find out how many blocks should be in each pack or pallet, what length, width and height they should have. Specialists advise buy similar materials with a small stock.
Different subspecies of silicate bricks have not only different dimensions, but also labeling indicating their characteristics.
- Marking “M” with numbers from 25 to 300 indicates the level of strength of the building materials (the digit above, the stronger brick).
- The designation “F” with digital notation is designed to pay attention to the level of frost resistance of building materials.
Silicate brick can have a different color. So, to give this construction material a classic white shade to add a special dye to the raw material. Other pigments can also be applied, as a result of the addition of which color bricks are obtained, for example, red or yellow. Often during the addition of pigment components to the compositions and special modifying ingredients, making silicate more frost-resistant and durable.
Scope of application
Silicate brick – very popular material. It is permissible to apply both in low-rise and high construction. In this case, it is understood by the construction of external and inland walls, partitions, ventilation channels of residential and industrial buildings. Also of such bricks build garages, garden houses and even fences. As for the preparation of high-quality basement of the building, it is better to consult a ceramic, and not silicone building material.
Tips and recommendations
Always pay attention to the surface of the silicate brick before letting it in the case. If small chips or minor irregularities may be present on ordinary products, then there should be no way in silicate copies.
Brick dimensions must be accurate and correctly selected. Here the deviations are unacceptable.
Looking for suitable brick, it is important to pay attention to its marking. Building materials should be as much as possible to carry out the upcoming work. Otherwise, it may be subjected to a quick destruction under the action of too much loads for it.
If you plan to build the walls of the house, then you should not get bricks with marking M75. Such products are permissible to use only in the construction of one-storey buildings. If we are talking about the design of commonens and internal partitions, then it is allowed to use the M100 brick brand, and sometimes M75.
Before building a house from Silicata, it is important to calculate the foundation that will betentedly withstanding a significant load from the construction of an impressive weight. Also dwellings from silicate bricks need to be insulated with suitable materials for this. You should not neglect this process, otherwise the house will be cold and completely uncomfortable.
In rural areas to silicate brick, often appeal as an alternative to refractory products. In most cases, fire supervision reveal it can not. But you should not use silicate in the manufacture of objects such as stoves. It is better to contact more suitable for this.
If you need to build a base, then from using silicate bricks should be refused. Similar structures are usually made from ceramic materials.
Do not look for too cheap material. The too low and tempting price may be a sign of doubtful quality of products. In pursuit of cheap you risk staying with unreliable and short-lived blocks.
Note that silicate is not friendly with groundwater. When contacting them, building material can start quickly collapse. This is due to the fact that in soil waters are often there are acids that negatively affect the binder component of bricks.
All you need to know about silicate brick – look in the video.