Arbolit as a building material was patented in the first half of the XX century. In our country, it has become widely applied in recent years.
Arbolit or woodcutton (shoe) is produced in the form of blocks. Used to erect low-rise buildings. As follows from the name, wood chip acts as a filler. The waste of coniferous and hardwood trees go.
Arbolit refers to low-cost building materials, characterized by high ecology, low blocks, excellent ability to keep heat. Wood waste in the composition of the mixture of a tree concrete more than three quarters – from 75 to 90 percent.
What it is?
Woodworking waste is valuable building material. After grinding to certain sizes, they become filler concrete mixtures. Separates are used for arbolit or how it is called shpobetone. Arbolite blocks have a lot of advantages. Available cost plays a considerable role. In addition, a house built from Arbolita practically does not require additional insulation.
There are chips and other advantages. Material is suitable for use as:
- fuel for furnaces – in pure form or in the form of granules;
- Decor – designers offer it in painted and natural form for the design of country sites and even parks;
- component for the manufacture and decoration of furniture;
- Ingredient used when smoking various foods.
In production, small fractions go to the manufacture of other building materials: cardboard, drywall, chipboard and fiberboard.
Practically any wood fit for the production of lump concrete. And yet preferably the use of coniferous rocks, for example, spruce or pine. From the deciduous better chickel from birch. Other hard hard breeds are suitable: aspen, oak and poplar.
When choosing wood for arbolit, you need to know its composition. So, larch is not suitable for this building material due to the high content of substances negatively affecting cement. Poison for cement are sugar. In addition to larch, they are in large quantities in the wood of beech. Consequently, the waste of this tree can also be used.
Very important point – Log cabbage. Chip can not be done immediately after cutting. Material must be crippled within three to four months.
Almost all waste can be the source code for making chips.
- branches and knots;
- tops of trees;
- residues and debris;
- Secondary waste.
It is allowed in the total mass of wood for the production of chips and leaves – no more than 5%, and the crust is no more than 10%.
Most often chip are made of fir and pines. The choice in favor of the needle is incomplete. The fact is that any wood contains such substances such as starch, sugar and other substances that can significantly affect the decrease in the quality of arbolit. In the process of production, you have to withdraw the harmful components. Since there are fewer them in need, it is precisely for these breeds less effort, time and material costs for the preparation of chips.
What should be chips?
The wood filler for Arbolit has its GOST. At the level of the state standard for chips, strict requirements are established.
Three main parameters are highlighted:
- Length is no more than 30 mm;
- width no more than 10 mm;
- thickness no more than 5 mm.
The optimal size of width and length are indicated:
- Length – 20 mm;
- Width – 5 mm.
New requirements appeared with the adoption of GOST 54854-2011. Prior to that, there was another GOS with less demand. Then the use of longer chips was allowed – up to 40 mm. In 2018, “liberty” in the sizes of the filler are not allowed.
The standard regulates the presence of impurities: bark, leaves, needles. The material should be cleaned from the ground, sand, clay, and in winter – from snow. The presence of mold and windows are unacceptable.
Equipment for manufacturing equipment
The most suitable equipment for obtaining chips of the required shape and size is a special woodworking shredder. However, the cost of the machine is so high that out of production have to look for other options.
Arbolit is quite possible to produce at home. For this and chip need to do. The chopper of wood in the conditions of the subsidiary farming becomes a pinching machine. Squares are three types.
- Disc chubble machines process wood of various shapes. By adjusting the inclination of the cutting tool, you can get the workpiece required.
- In the drum ships, all sorts of waste are crushed: logging, furniture production, trimming after construction. Raw materials are loaded into the bulk bunker, from where it gets into the chamber and cuts knives with double-sided blades.
- Rotary hammer-type crushers are available with two or one shaft. The main elements of the device – hammers and bumps. First, the wood is crushed by shock mode, then the finished products are sieved through the sieve. The size of the resulting chips depends on the sieve cells.
All listed devices provide only manual material loading.
Principle of production
The principle of operation of seporesov comes down to several stages.
First, waste – boards, hill, trimming, swirls and other raw materials – laid in the boot bunker. From there all this is supplied to the closed chamber, where a powerful disk rotates on the shaft. Flat disk have slits. On it, in addition, several knives are fixed. Knives moving at an angle. Due to this, wood treated is divided into small plates with oblique cut.
Through the disk slots, the plates penetrate the drum, where the steel fingers produce further grinding. Fingers and plates are attached on the same shaft as the disk. Plates set very close to drum. They move the grumbling chip on the inner surface of the drum.
The bottom of the drum is equipped with a grid with cells that provide the specified sizes of chips. Cell size varies from 10 to 15 mm in diameter. Once ready-to-use chip falls into the bottom zone in the vertical direction, it passes through the grid in the pallet. The remaining particles are turning, held by the plates, another circle. At this time, their position is constantly changing. Reaching Niza in the right direction, they also find themselves in the pallet.
Squares may have both electric and gasoline drives. The engine power of a small device is within four – six kilowatt, in more solid reaches 10-15 kW. The ability of the device. With its increase, the volume of products increases in the hour of operation of the mechanism.
How to make shporez do it yourself?
Those who want to make their own seporesis, you will need a device drawing, materials, specific knowledge and skills. The drawing can be found on the Internet, for example, the one that is attached.
Nodes and details will have to do and collect yourself.
One of the main elements of the mechanism – disk with a diameter of about 350 mm and a thickness of about 20 mm. If nothing suitable in the farm has, you have to pull out of the sheet. For landing on the shaft you will need to make a well-centered hole with a groove. In addition, it will be necessary to cut three grooves, through which the wood will fall under the hammers, and the right number of mounting holes.
There are several easier things with knives. They are made of automotive springs. Two holes under fasteners are drilled on the knives. Except drill, it will take a zenker. Zenkovka will restore the secret heads of fasteners. Tight attach knives to the disk will not be difficult to any adult man.
Hammers represent ordinary steel plates having a thickness of about 5 mm. They are attached on the rotor with a step of 24 mm. You can buy hammers in the store.
Sieve for slimpore – it is a long (about 1100 mm) cylinder (d = 350 mm), rolled and cooked from sheet. It is noteworthy that the holes in the sieve must have non-smooth, and torn edges. Therefore, they are not drilled, but cut down, for example, a displacement with a diameter of 8 to 12 mm.
All cutting and rotating parts must close the casing. The casing, like the receiving hopper, is made of sheet steel. Separate parts are cut on cardboard patterns and weld into one. For the stiffness of the structure to sheets, the ribs of stiffness from pipes or corners weld. All holes should be provided in the case: for shaft, boot hopper and to yield chips.
Finished parts are collected in the mechanism. Disk, hammers and bearings are satisfied with the work shaft. The whole design is closed by a casing. The disc should not touch the housing. The clearance should be about 30 mm.
The drive is mounted at the final stage. Homemade spitsez can work from electric motor with voltage 220 or 380 V. It is allowed to work from a gasoline or diesel engine.
Electric motors have a small power, but low noise and more eco-friendly. Internal combustion engines are more productive, but their work is accompanied by the release of harmful exhaust gases.
Homemade sphesezes are beneficial in the manufacture of arbolit for private construction.
About how to make squeezes with their own hands, look in the following video.