Foam concrete is a very popular material for low-rise construction. In addition to industrial production, it is manufactured independently. The release of various types of blocks can be a profitable business. However, the production of foam blocks at home has a number of features. Before buying the desired unit, you need to have an idea of the features of the material itself, the correct choice of related tools, as well as the flow rate of the mixtures.
Features of the material
Foam blocks are made from a building solution, which includes:
- Portland cement;
- foaming agent (focused);
In this case, the volumetric density of foam concrete can be different. In essence, this is a concrete with a cellular structure. It is formed by mass of closed air bubbles. This feature causes a small density, as well as the thermal conductivity of the material. Under different indicators of density, foam blocks can be used as thermal insulation, structural and heat insulating and structural materials with low thermal conductivity.
As a rule, it is on the foam concrete brand that its density level is determined. What it is lower, the less mixture was used for the manufacture of material. This fact is reflected at cost (foam concrete costs cheaper than concrete). However, with relatively low density, it is considered a favorable material when erecting partitions inside the house.
Foam block is easy to process, transfers cutting with typical hacksaw. In addition, it does not destroy when nails are clogged into it. In the work, it resembles wood, in shape is a rectangle. Blocks may have different dimensions: from standard elements to highly large.
Homemade foam concrete has those dimensions that are defined by the form of the purchased unit.
Pros and cons
Foam concrete has a lot of advantages, thanks to which he is in demand in the field of construction. This material practically does not change its qualitative and performance characteristics over time, it is not susceptible to aging. Ecology makes it harmless to the health of the manufacturer, builders and households. It does not emit toxic substances into the air, it is considered durable and reliable, guarantees good thermal insulation.
In addition, it has high sound insulation properties, reduces noise levels, which is important for a modern person. Foam block inert to the effects of fire. It is able to stabilize the temperature background indoors, easy to install, and also has a high profitability of production. Due to the low weight, it does not create a tremendous load like concrete. This reduces costs when installing the foundation.
However, along with advantages, foam concrete has disadvantages. For example, despite the fact that it is considered durable, it loses concrete and reinforced concrete. Other nuances include the fact that foam block does not work for bend. He is unstable to moisture, because it is able to absorb it from the environment.
Regardless of the production or at home the material produced, it will give a shrinkage.
Equipment and tools
In the manufacture of foam blocks at home You may need the following equipment and equipment:
- supplying device for cement and sand;
- Foam generator with a capacity of at least 200 l / min;
- dosage driver of water used;
- vibrohotot (sifter of raw materials);
- hose for the output of the finished mixture;
- concrete mixer with a volume of at least 250 l;
- Special forms for blocks or cutting machine.
Buy today the necessary equipment for the production of building materials at home will not be much difficult. If you wish, you can purchase not only equipped with a production line, but also the individual components. It is worth considering that the equipment for the production of foam blocks at home is not only stationary, but also portable. The line can be conveyor or automated. These factors determine the cost of the acquired equipment.
The basis of any equipment set is the foam generator. Such a device per day can provide a release of about 100-110 cubic meters of material. A distinctive feature of stationary type lines is their high performance along with excellent quality and small cost. Considering that such a kit will cost approximately 1.5 million. rubles, it poses question its purchase.
Mobile foam concrete installation does not require the purchase of an expensive foam generator, which makes it in demand in the construction market. However, along with this, it cannot boast of high productivity. As a rule, in this case the barorestation is used, but at all its power it is not able to give more than 40-45 cubic meters of finished material per day.
At the same time, ready-made blocks are created with a large consumption of foaming agents.
Their strength is inferior to the analogues created on stationary lines. The price of a complete home-made set can vary in the range from 50 to 300 thousand rubles. In this case, as a rule, high-power equipment has a big value. For example, a kit for 300,000 rubles can give a day of about 72 cubic meters of foam concrete.
The automatic line needs large areas, which is often problematic, because it is not foreseen initially. As a rule, such lines need to create bins for cement, water, sand, as well as additives with automatic dosage. In addition, it is necessary to think about the squares for the drying of foam concrete, its fills in forms, as well as installations for cutting. This equipment is able to issue an average of about 80-100 cubic meters of material per day, but not everyone may afford such a luxury, because the kit will cost from 1.5 to 3 million. rubles.
When at the initial stage does not have enough funds, b / y. However, in this case, it is necessary to be prepared for the fact that it may be necessary to replace any details quickly.
In addition, it is necessary to understand that the equipment that was in operation can cause the low quality of the finished foam concrete.
Forms purchased for foam concrete can be different. Today they are made of steel, plywood, as well as plastic. Product capacity is different, for example, you can purchase plastic forms with dimensions of 390x190x288 mm, options for plywood size 588x300x188 mm, steel analogs of parameters 600x300x200 mm. When purchasing them, it is important to take into account the rigor of geometry, because the quality of the finished material will be directly dependent on. Even the slightest symmetry disorders are unacceptable.
When choosing forms for filling foam concrete mass worth paying attention to the material of their manufacture. Considering that the formwork can be combined, it is especially important. For example, if the seller notes that the metal version with inserts from superproof plastic is able to withstand even the highest temperature, you should not blindly trust this.
The fact is that such forms are actually short-lived. In the process of drying and hardening the foam concrete mass, a large amount of heat will be released.
Plastic, no matter how high-quality it is, reacts to an increase in temperature.
Flow and proportions of the mixture
The proportions of the components of the ingredients in the manufacture of foam concrete look as follows: at 320 kg of cement (for example, M500 brand) take 420 kg of sand, 45 liters of water to produce foam and 120 liters of water for solution. As for the foaming agent, its consumption depends on a certain brand. Usually, this volume is used within 1.2-1.5 kg. Water for production can be taken not only water, suitable and technical, moderate stiffness.
The recipe and proportions are directly dependent on the density of foam concrete, which must be obtained in the end. For example, if the volumetric density of foam blocks D 600, take 210 kg of sand, 310 kg of cement, 110 l of water for solution and 54 l – to dilute foam. In addition, the components of the building material are 1.3 kg of foam centers and 715 liters of foam. When mixing the entire number of components, the raw mass of 685 kg.
When a large density is needed (for example, 1000 kg per m3), the foam concrete mass is made of 590 kg of sand, 350 kg of cement, 120 liters of water in solution, 42 liters in foam. For such a recipe, no more than 1 kg of foamoncentrate and 560 liters of foam are used. As a result, in the latter case, the mass of raw materials for obtaining foam blocks will be 1103 kg.
It is important to monitor the homogeneity of the resulting foam and the solution. This will increase the qualitative characteristics of the finished material. Choosing the desired recipe, it is worth considering that according to the current GOST, the shrinkage of the finished material should not exceed 3 mm per 1 kV. M.
How to do?
Production of foam blocks at home is performed in two ways: casting and sawing. Classical manufacturing technology with your own hands involves the use of special forms of cassette type having removable partitions and boards for separating a total capacity to separate sections of identical size. In such forms, the solution dries and hardens, after which the fined foam concrete. The main advantage of this method of manufacturing a building material is the fact that the monolithic block does not need to cut.
This eliminates the need to purchase a saw machine, which reduces the cost of equipment. However, it is a form that can cause a violation of strict geometry. Not all poured elements after hardening will be perfect even when buying an expensive device. Marriage will be in any case, and this is an extra consumption of the mixture.
In order to prevent the destruction of foam blocks, it is necessary to use a special lubricant decomposed in the open air within a few days.
Such substances are not suiced, however, if not to use them, it may cause the appearance of chips or crackling foam blocks.
Most often in household production use cutting technology. In this case, one large shape is first poured, which is further cutting into separate elements of the specified size. For this method buy sawing machine. Although he will require certain financial investments, profitability will increase. The advantages of this method are the strict geometry of each element, as well as minimizing the formation of chips at the edges of the foam blocks.
However, this technique can hit the wallet well, since it will take special equipment to produce small blanks, and it costs expensive. In addition, cutting the monolithic slab on small parts increases the time spent on the production of material.
The cutting machine is two types. In the first case, this unit on which the monolithic material is cut immediately after it is rejected (rasorovka). It is convenient because it is not necessary to transfer the entire stove to the sawing machine, thereby reducing labor costs and time. The cutting of foam blocks occurs due to special strings characterized by high accuracy of cutting.
The disadvantages of these cutting elements are their briefness, as well as a decent cost.
The second type of cutting installations needs the transfer of foam concrete monolith for cutting. In this case, it is necessary to cut it with disk blades. Unlike strings, such knives are durable, and the aggregates themselves are economical in service. However, transfer the plates of foam concrete on them, to put it mildly, uncomfortable and troublesome.
Calculation of foam blocks can be carried out in two ways: natural and autoclave. At the same time, the best quality characteristics have elements dried by the second method. So it is possible to create the most favorable conditions for obtaining a good building material. However, the price of such equipment beats significantly by pocket, so in small volumes it does not buy it.
Foam concrete dried independently, it is better driving in summer. As a rule, if the temperature in the room during drying is minus, it is necessary to cover the formwork or produce the creation of special chambers for steam blocks. In the first case, polyethylene or production batting are usually used. In the second under these needs, the room inside the production workshop.
In such a room, create a special temperature regime, taking into account the necessary humidity for uniform and correct solidification of blocks. Often for these goals use steam generators, trying to automate the workflow in this way. When there is no extra money, but I do not want to increase the timing of foam blocks, resort to different budget solutions to this problem. Someone puts in a bucket with water in a chamber, in another case, communications with gas heating are carried out.
Those who do not suit these solutions make a certain part of the production workshop by any existing material that is characterized by an acceptable price. For example, an old brick, professional knots, or even the same foam blocks apply as a fence. When steaming the chamber, gas must take into account the optimality of the selected mode. Ideally, the humidity in the room should not be less than 65%. However, if the production does not provide for the purchase of specialized equipment in the form of a heat-magnetic chamber, this may affect the certification of the finished material.
Standard manufacturing technology of foam concrete blocks at home consists of several operations.
- Initially, penocentrate is prepared in a separate container. Then it is connected to water and sent to the steam generator. If independent production has a cavitation installation, foaming content by ultrasound, this stage is missing.
- In the next step, it is necessary to make a mixture for foam concrete. For this, the necessary components of the mixture and special additives are placed in the mixer chamber. After that, the camera is filled with previously cooked foam. According to the rules of technology, mixing in the chamber passes within a few minutes.
- If the production is used cavitation installation, Initially, a foaming agent is placed in the chamber. In this case, the remaining components of the working solution are placed later. At the same time, the time of the stirring should not exceed 0.5 minutes. At this stage, the solution is ready for fill.
- After stirring, the composition is poured into the available forms. So that the mass does not stick to the surface of the equipment, the place of touch is pre-lubricated with machine oil or special lubricating fluid. It is desirable that the temperature in the room during frozen and rejection of the composition was at least +20 degrees ° C. After about 8-10 hours, foam concrete picks one quarter of its strength.
This is the best time to spend it cut, taking into account the necessary sizes, as well as packing. The final strength elements are gained in 28 days from the moment of their manufacture. Vacation strength is the figure in a third of the specified.
You can sell the goods in two days.
What to consider?
It may sometimes seem that it is much easier to independently manufacture equipment for the production of foam blocks using basic knowledge, capacity calculation and drawings, which will not be difficult to find on the Internet. However, it is worth considering: the manufacture of foam concrete in the conditions of a homely mini-plant does not allow inaccuracies, since its benefit depends on. It should be understood that in the extreme case, the factory product will be easy to sell in the future as unnecessary, while homemade products will remain unclaimed.
For the production of foam blocks, portland cement brand M 500. To improve the qualitative characteristics of the finished elements, additive additives add to it. For example, using the Bio Nm modifier, you can improve foam block resistance to frost. Due to the additives “Bio-Lux” and Laston, you can increase the concentration of air in the structure of the material.
In order for the finished material to have excellent thermal insulation properties, the industrial foaming agent should be purchased for its manufacture. No matter how much to save and make it yourself, it will not have indicators of heat conservation, similar to the embodiment made in production.
Important and the fact that quality raw materials is the basis of high-quality foam block.
Instructions for the manufacture of foam blocks at home you can learn by looking at the video below.