The durability of the construction depends on all used building materials without exception, but most carefully choose the material of the walls, because even with the perfect plot for construction, the unsuccessful choice of this component will lead to the fact that the building will definitely temper. Material for the manufacture of walls can greatly affect the cost of implementing the entire project, and some principal characteristics may depend on it – for example, the thermal conductivity of the structure. If we talk about a proven classic, then, perhaps, there is no more practical material than Saman.
The saman is called a brick of clay and straw with the addition of water, but the exact proportions, as well as a complete set of components, does not exist – the composition of the artificial stone can noticeably vary depending on what characteristics are required from it.
The main ingredient of any Samana was clay, preference gives varieties with medium fatty. The viscosity of the mass can be different, because if necessary, a certain amount of water is added, in order to knew the composition was easier. Traditionally, a filler, which increased the strength of the filling clay, bonding it, and improved the thermal conductivity somewhat. Historically, fibrous plants and even manure were used as such a component, but today in such an asterity is more often used finely popped straw or poultry.
Of course, the above-described ingredients were limited to the old days, and today, in the age of developed technologies, The composition of the Samana may contain various additives, significantly improving certain qualities of such bricks:
- Crushed stone, sand or clay crumb in half with clay allow drying machine to avoid a strong shrinkage, while maintaining the specified sizes and shape;
- Casein and bone glue, as well as archaic dung alive or modern liquid glass can be used instead of water to attach any desired shape without spreading;
- Lime and cement are known for its ability to quickly give moisture into the environment, therefore they are added to the recipe so that the bricks are more like and were moisture-resistant;
- Fiber cellulose, crowning straw, wood chips or the same manure allow the Saman to be relatively elastic, which increases the stability of the material to the temperature drops and compression or stretching.
Moreover, in some cases, more complex additives of synthetic origin are added – in particular, to improve the protection of building materials from the impact of living organisms. However, even in the classic form, Samama enjoys a huge success for many thousands of years.
The exact date of opening of Samana is unknown, but scientists say that at home has already been built six thousand years ago. At that time, it was almost the only way out for residents of steppe and desert zones, where even more traditional wood or natural stone almost did not meet. As it happens in any era and in any state, the construction of the house has also been associated with huge costs, therefore there was nothing to be the poor in the population, except to come up with a way of construction from what lies under the legs and no one is particularly necessary. Ancient Egypt is considered to be the birthplace of the first Saman, and so from there such material has spread to many regions with the climate conditions described.
Modern saman brick can have different characteristics that are highly dependent on its composition components and their proportions On average, it should be approximately:
- Density comparable to ordinary brick – at the level of 1500-1900 kg per cubic meter;
- The thermal conductivity depends, first of all, on the amount of straw used (than it is more, the better the walls are preserved heat), but in general, the saman on this indicator is twice as much as the simple brick – 0.1-0.4 W / (m * hail);
- In resistance to compression, the saman blocks are very similar to the modern foam block – in both cases, this indicator ranges from 10-50 kg per square centimeter.
Advantages and disadvantages
On the one hand, Samam has been there several thousand years old, but he not only did not lose the relevance, but even acquired it in those regions where the wood reigned earlier as a building machine. On the other hand, contrary to all improvements in composition and characteristics, such a block is not only not considered the leader in the building materials market, but can also be deliberately rejected as an option in favor of one or alternative. All this indicates that Samana has its advantages and disadvantages that it is worth considering even before building material will be purchased.
- Samama always treated the category of the cheapest building materials, and today, even with various additives, it remains almost most affordable for the price. Moreover, in many cases, the owner can make it even independently – for this you need not so much money as simple knowledge and desire.
- According to the main characteristics of Samam, the majority of potential hosts of the building will satisfy, because it not only keeps warm, but also has excellent soundproof properties. Moreover, the saman walls also absorb excess moisture, participating in the normalization of the atmosphere in the house.
- Classic Samama is completely harmless – it is so natural product, as far as possible. At the same time, it is predictable, completely does not burn on fire.
- The saman wall requires careful shuttering to protect it from moisture. By itself, such a brick has tremendous hygroscopicity, and this is at least much increases the weight of the design and can lead to its deformation.
- The saman blocks pretty quickly dry where they were invented – in hot countries, but in our conditions it falls for a long time to wait until the brick dry and becomes durable. Throughout this time, building materials should be carefully preserved from moisture, and indeed it requires special storage until the moment he does not cover his protective trim. Such a demand leads to the fact that buildings from the Saman can not always be built, and in winter such a task looks unreal.
- Classic Samama, being 100% natural, does not carry any danger not only for people, but also for home pests – from insects to rodents. Moreover, plant inclusions can also attract such non-crushed guests, and emptiness remaining from them can be used last as housing. In modern conditions, special chemical additives or correct finishes are used to prevent such events, but then such advantages are lost as environmental friendliness and partly low cost.
- Sumane masonry requires a certain time so that there is enough shrinkage and the wall has gained strength. For this reason, the construction time of structures from Saman always exceeds the same time construction of a brick building.
The ingredients traditionally included in the saman blocks can be used in different proportions and subject to different laying technology. For this reason, Samama is customary to divide into two main varieties – the so-called light and heavy.
Although Samama in the representation of most people seems to be a brick or block of any other shape, a light variety very rarely has such a kind. The fact is that for the manufacture of light self-made, a very small amount of clay is used – usually its share is not more than 10%, whereas the filler plays the dominant role. The resulting mass has significant fluidity and low plasticity, therefore requires a more solid foundation from another material. Usually lightweight saman or is a kind of coating for the crate, which is installed next to the frame wall, or the filler between the two such walls at once.
It turns out that it is impossible to build a whole of the light Samana – it will surely complement the other building material, but this can be found in this. So, the building retains all the advantages of its sacred fellow (except probably low cost), but it is erected much faster and somewhat easier. Cons of such a decision are that the framework material may be noticeably more expensive than similar in terms of the volume of saman blocks, and the wood often uses wood with all its flaws in the form of price, flammability, exposure to moisture and pests.
The fact that for most people is “ordinary” saman blocks is the so-called heavy saman. The composition of such bricks we have already considered higher, and the advantages of its use are obvious – the building is much stronger and reliable, and it is possible to study the finish almost immediately after the wall has been erected, because Samama literally requires that it will be protected as soon as possible from the impact of the atmosphere. The huge disadvantage of this variety of material is its exposure to the destructive effects of water – it is she who is the main enemy of saman buildings. Although water is used in the production of Samana, take care of the finished material from moisture you always need, starting from the drying stage and ending with construction, finishing and accommodation in the finished home.
On the construction of a saman house, you can save significantly, given that you can make such a brick with your own hands at home from what literally lies under the legs. The main required ingredient is the clay of medium fat. Such a lot is quite good and does not let water, therefore is looking for it usually near water bodies or in wetlands. The layer of the required material may be located on the surface, but rather close to it – this indicates a high level of water in the well or moisture-boring plants (mint, and a seed), growing without watering away from water bodies.
If the clay is too fat, it can be understood slightly with sand – on average it needs to be added in proportions 1: 7. It is advisable not to use river sand because of the likely presence in it, but large mountain varieties are suitable.
Due to the climate of climate, it is necessary to engage in the workpiece of the samana in warm, However, clay is usually harvested much earlier – since the previous autumn. Raw materials dump a large slide (but not more than a meter height) and shelted with a thick layer of straw with a thickness of about 10 cm. In this form of clay all the fall and winter will die in the rains and freezes, thanks to which it becomes plastic. With the onset of spring, the straw is removed, and the clay is covered with polyethylene, pressing the edge by stones – thanks to this, a bunch will faster, but will not give all the moisture atmosphere, because the crust is not formed on it.
As for the straw necessary for the production of blocks, it is suitable both in the latest form and last year. The only principal requirement is the quality of raw materials – it should not have any damage due to improper storage. In some cases, you can do without this ingredient at all, but then you need to replace it with any dry grass with durable fibers.
As we have already understood, dry and warm weather are extremely important for the production of self and construction, because the formation of blocks should be started with the first steady warming, in order to have time to complete the house to the attack of deep autumn. For the production of Saman, it is desirable to choose a plot next to the planned construction – ready-made blocks weigh a lot, so we can wear them somewhere far be problematic. To preserve the correct shape of the bricks, the platform must be smooth, and so that the grass and garbage can not be removed to them, they are removed in advance. It should also be provided for the stock for rainwater – better if the territory will be slightly raised over the closest neighborhood. The entire surface is covered with a straw. Nothing terrible, even if it sticks to blocks, because it still goes into their composition.
Before kneading clay, the platform is additionally covered with a dense waterproof cloth. In the center of the improvised workshop, a bunch of harvested clay, watching its homogeneity without large comkers. In the center of the heap is made a small fossa for water, it is poured there as much as it is required to give a mass of plasticity.
Clay the easiest to be kneaded by foot – so significant accompanying efforts do not seem so powerful. If we need to add sand to reduce fat, this is done already at the stage of blending clay with water, the straw is added after the above-described ingredients are mixed. Straw before adding to the mixture is pre-pulled out in water. Its proportions are usually about 15 kg per cubic meter of clay, although they have already mentioned, depend on the needs and capabilities of the owner. The resulting mass must be mounted on the legs until it becomes completely homogeneous. Be prepared that it will take a lot of time. As a result, it turns out that the lightest samana, which is crushed into a bunch and leave for two or three days.
At this time, it is worth taking care of the search or independent making forms for blocks. They usually represent just a box without a bottom, seeing “contour” for future bricks. It is better to determine the size of the one who will plan and build a building, but in many respects it depends on the climate – the massive blocks predictably dry longer, and where it is often cool and rainy even in the summer, they must have a minimum possible size. Take into account that drying saman is under shrinkage by 10-15%, and in some cases even more, therefore make blocks with a certain amount of size. For more convenience, the form for the samana from the inside is covered with polyethylene, and the handles are attached to it outside.
Bookmark future blocks is made on a flat platform, open for sunlight. Forms are installed on the ground, pre-aligned, purified and covered according to the described scheme, and the kneaded and satisfied, the saman is brought by in any way and fall asleep in the boxes, diligently trambye. Excess, not fitted, carefully remove with the help of a board stacked on the opposite side of the drawer, and then the form simply raise, leaving the saman in its place, and repeat the procedure at the next site.
Wet bricks need to pierce in the center in two or three places with a wire of about a millimeter thick so that the shrinkage in the drying process did not lead to full block deformation. To protect against precipitation, molded pieces of mass are covered with waterproof materials – rubberoid or tarpaulom, which also contribute to the uniformity of drying. In this form, the saman will dry 1.5 days, then it turns over to the side and give a day of time. Then you need to transfer it under a canopy, posing in the form of a well for the final drying, which will be delayed for another two weeks. At this stage, bricks are better installed on top of a wooden flooring or pallets – it will help to take off the excess moisture.
After that, it’s time from finished blocks to build a building, but you can check whether everything is done correctly. When complied with the technology, the samanny brick withstands the fall from the height of two meters (at least to the soil) without any deformations. In addition, high-quality Samama is able not to lose the shape, two days climbing in water.
Although the saman brick is withstanding two days in water, for the durability of the house, such tests are very harmful, because the masonry is carried out on top of the ribbon foundation with a height of at least a half-meter equipped with waterproofing from the rubberoid to several layers. The thickness of the tape should at least 20 cm exceed the planned masonry thickness – this stock is intended for a thick protective layer from plaster or other finishes.
Recommended thickness of samable walls – from 30 cm for internal partitions and from 50 cm – for carriers. Even at the construction stage, Samam still continues to dry, because no more than two rows are put on the day. If necessary, the block can be destroyed by an ax. Masonry is carried out on a solution based on clay and sand.
Works are made only in dry and sunny weather, With the first signs of rain work urgently stop and tightly covered with polyethylene walls. For decorations, any waterproof and vapor-permeable plaster, except for cement, which is poorly connected with clay. The finishing layer must be thick – at least 5 cm, you can even 10 cm. As a jumper over various openings, boards are used from 5 cm thick, bent the processing of waterproofing compositions. The roof is possible to make a hanging at least half a meter – it helps once again protect the saman walls from atmospheric precipitation.
About how to make a saman block with your own hands, look in the following video.