Reinforcement of the foundation plate: technology calculations and installation

The content of the article
  1. Peculiarities
  2. Scheme
  3. How to calculate?
  4. Tips

The construction of any building involves the formation of a foundation that will perceive the entire burden on itself. Its durability and strength depends on this part of the house. There are several types of grounds, among which special attention should be paid to monolithic plates. They are used on persistent soils where there are no significant level fluctuations. An important element of such a design is the reinforcement, which allows to increase monolith strength.

Peculiarities

Monolithic plates are structures from high-quality concrete. Material is characterized by high strength. The disadvantage of the foundation plate is its low plasticity. Concrete structures are very quickly cracking at high loads, which can lead to the formation of cracks and dialing the foundation.

The solution of this problem is the reinforcement of the plate with various types of steel wire. Technically, this process involves the formation of a metal frame inside the foundation.

All similar operations are produced based on special SNiP, which describes the main reinforcement technology.

The presence of steel frameworks allows you to increase the plasticity of the plate, since high loads are already perceived also with the metal. Reinforcement allows you to solve several important problems:

  1. The strength of the material increases, which can perceive high mechanical loads.
  2. The risk of a shrinkage of the facility is reduced, and the likelihood of cracks arising from relatively unstable soils is minimized.

It should be noted that all the technical characteristics of such processes are governed by special standards. These documents indicate the parameters of monolithic structures and the basic rules for their installation are given. The reinforcing element for such plates is a metal mesh, which is formed by hand. Depending on the thickness of the monolith, the valve can be located in one or two rows with a certain distance between the layers.

It is important to correctly calculate all these specifications to get a reliable frame.

Scheme

Plate reinforcement is not a complex process. But there are several important rules that need to be followed with this procedure. So, laying of reinforcement can be made in one or more layers. Single-layer structures It is advisable to apply for a slab base to 15 cm thick. If this value is more, then it is recommended to apply a multi-row armature location.

Between themselves, the reinforcement layers are connected using vertical supports that do not allow the top row to fall.

The main width of the plate should be formed from uniformly located cells. The step between the reinforcement wire both in the transverse and longitudinal direction, is selected depending on the thickness of the monolith and the load on it. For wooden houses, wire can be knit between themselves at a distance of 20-30 cm, forming square cells. The optimal step for brick buildings is considered to be a distance of 20 cm.

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If the design is relatively light, then this value is permissible to increase to 40 cm. The ends of each plate, according to the standard standards, should be reinforced using the P-shaped fittings. Its length should be 2 thicknesses of the monolithic plate.

This factor should be considered when designing structures and choosing reinforcing elements.

Supporting frameworks (vertical rods) are installed in a step, which is similar to the armature location parameters in the grid. But sometimes this value can be increased twice. But it is used for foundations that will not succumb to very strong loads.

Jones of jacks are formed using a lattice with a reduced step. These segments are part of the slab on which the framework of the building (carrier walls) will be placed in the subsequent. If the main zone was laid with squares with a side of 20 cm, then in this place the step should be about 10 cm in both directions.

With the arrangement of the basement zone of the foundation and monolithic walls, the so-called issues should be formed. They constitute vertical reinforcement pins, which are connected by mating basic reinforcing framework. This form allows you to significantly increase the strength and provide a high-quality compound of support with vertical elements. Armature when installing issues should be bent in the form of the letter G. In this case, the horizontal part must have a length of 2 altitudes of the foundation.

Another feature of the formation of reinforcing frames is the wire connection technology. You can do this in several main ways:

  • Welding. Long process that is possible only for steel reinforcement. Use it for small monolithic plates with a relatively minimum amount of work. An alternative option is the use of already finished welded structures made in production. This allows you to significantly speed up the process of formation of the frame. The disadvantage of such a connection is that the output is hard design.
  • Bits. The connection of the reinforcement is carried out using steel thin wire (diameter 2-3 mm). A twist is performed by special devices that allow you to speed up the process slightly. This method is quite time consuming and long. But at the same time, the reinforcement does not rigorously communicate with each other, which allows it to adapt to certain fluctuations or loads.
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The reinforcement technology of the foundation can be described by the following consistent actions:

  • Preparation of the foundation. Monolithic plates are located on a peculiar pillow, which is formed from rubble and sand. It is important to get a durable and even base. Sometimes before the fill of concrete on the soil, special waterproofing materials, preventing the penetration of moisture to concrete from the soil.
  • Formation of the lower reinforcing layer. The reinforcement is consistently positioned initially in the longitudinal, and then in the transverse direction. Bind it with wire, forming square cells. So that the metal does not speak from concrete after its fill, you need to raise the resulting design. For this, small supports (chairs) are placed under it, the height of which is selected depending on the height of the monolithic plate (2-3 cm). It is desirable that these elements are made of metal. Thus, a space is formed directly under the grid, which will be filled with concrete and close metal.

  • Arrangement of vertical supports. Make them from the same reinforcement as the grid itself. Wire bend in such a way as to get a frame to which the top row can rely.
  • Formation of the upper layer. The grid is designed in a similar way, as was done for the bottom row. The same cell size is used here. Fasten the design to vertical supports one of the known methods.
  • Fill. When the reinforcing frame is ready, it is poured with concrete. From above and from the sides above the grid, the protective layer is also formed. It is important that the metal does not come through the material after the foundation is frozen.

How to calculate?

One of the important elements is the calculation of the technical characteristics of the rods of reinforcement. In most cases, the grid step is 20 cm. Therefore, special attention should be paid to the calculation of other parameters. The procedure begins with determining the diameter of the reinforcement. This process consists of such consecutive steps:

  • First you need to determine the cross section of the foundation. It is calculated for each side of the plate. To do this, you need the thickness of the future foundation multiplied by length. For example, for the plate 6 x 6 x 0.2 m, this indicator will be equal to 6 x 0.2 = 1.2 m2.

  • After that, it is necessary to calculate the minimum area of ​​the reinforcement, which should be applied to a specific series. It is 0.3 percent of the cross section (0.3 x 1.2 = 0.0036 m2 or 36 cm2). This coefficient should be used when calculating each party. To calculate a similar value for one row, it should be simply separated by the resulting area in half (18 cm2).
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  • Having learned the total area, you can calculate the number of reinforcement rods that should be used for one row. Please note that it only concerns the section and the amount of wire is not taken into account that is stacked in the longitudinal direction. To find out the number of rods, one should calculate the area of ​​one. Then the total area is divided into the resulting value. For 18 cm2 apply 16 elements with a diameter of 12 mm or 12 elements with a diameter of 14 mm. You can learn these parameters in special tables.

To simplify such calculation procedures, you should draw up a drawing. Another step is to count the number of reinforcement, which should be purchased for foundation. It is quite easy to calculate this:

  1. First of all, you need to know the length of each row. It is calculated in both directions, if the foundation has a rectangular shape. Note that the length should be less than 2-3 cm on each side so that the foundation can close the metal.
  2. When you know the length, you can calculate the number of rods in one row. To do this, it is necessary to divide the lattice to the step and round the resultant number.
  3. To learn a common footage, the operations described earlier should be carried out for each row and fold the result together.

Tips

The formation of a monolithic foundation can be carried out in various ways. To get high-quality design, such simple tips should be followed:

  • Armature should be placed in the thickness of concrete to prevent the rapid development of metal corrosion. Therefore, experts recommend “stir” wire on each side of the slab to a depth of 2-5 cm depending on the thickness of the plate.

  • Use for reinforcement of foundations only class A400 fittings. Its surface is covered with a special “Christmas tree”, increasing communication with concrete after frozen. No lower class products should be applied, as they are not able to provide the desired strength of the design.
  • When connecting the wire should be laid with an overlayed about 25 cm. This will create a tougher and reliable framework.

Reinforced monolithic foundation is a great basis for many types of buildings. Performing its construction, follow the standard recommendations, and you will receive a durable and reliable design.

In more detail about the reinforcement of the foundation plate will tell the following video.

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