Refractory brick: characteristics and varieties

Ordinary brick is suitable for construction far from all designs and structures. So, for the manufacture of furnaces or fireplaces, as well as industrial facilities, it is not necessary to use non-standard, but a special refractory material that is not terrible high temperatures.

Today we will meet a closer to these building materials and find out what characteristics they possess.

Features and composition

Brick is one of the most popular and common building materials, which has many positive qualities. Cute brick houses are found almost on each street, so the demand for such products is not subject to doubt.

It is important to keep in mind that the standard varieties of bricks are not suitable for all works.

In high temperatures, traditional bricks can quickly come into disrepair and expose deformation / destruction. It is customary to refer to a more practical and wear-resistant refractory material, which in such circumstances will not lose its positive properties. Fortunately, in our time, you can find such products in many outlets.

Heat resistant brick – an ideal solution when designing grounds, insulating open flames. In addition, these resistant materials are addressed if it is required to separate the inner walls of household stoves, channels of chimneys, fireplaces or pipes. Work on styling this brick (lining) is usually performed by experienced masters.

Many technical characteristics of refractory bricks are very different from the qualities belonging to ceramic or silicate stones. The main ingredient in these building materials – clay. The remaining components in the composition of such products occur on various impurities and specialized additives. However, all additions in the composition of these materials are characterized by the fact that they retain their positive qualities even under the regular action of high temperature values.

Quality refractory brick is very often used in industrial production. For this reason, this building material must necessarily meet a number of relevant requirements for its quality.

Choosing a suitable refractory brick, it is very important to ensure that there are no slightest defects or damage on its surface. Similar drawbacks can lead to poor consequences, for example, to a failure in the work of one design. Usually this fact provokes extra cash spending.

The main features and properties that these reliable materials possess are the following parameters.

  • For these products, low thermal conductivity is characterized. Thanks to this quality, the necessary temperature regime is always preserved inside the heat equipment.
  • Similar brick is not afraid of contact with high temperatures. Even under the action of severe heat, such materials do not lose their positive qualities and do not fail.
  • Also these bricks are distinguished by the presence of heat inertia. It heats up in the shortest possible time, and cool enough slowly.
  • The refractory brick is characterized by the optimal heat capacity, which is sufficient for the accumulation of heat and its further transmission.
  • The heat-resistant brick is not afraid of a hot gas, no metals, no slags. Such properties can boast not every building material.
  • Volumetric parameters of such products remain unchanged. They are not subject to shrinkage or additional growth.

Essential materials are made in accordance with GOST and regulatory documents. As mentioned earlier, the composition of these products is the refractive clay of a special variety. It usually takes about 70% of the total brick volume.

In order to get blocks with various technical characteristics into molding mass, some types of additives are used, such as:

  • Coke shallow fraction;
  • graphite;
  • Quartz powder of a large fraction.

Refractory bricks are manufactured using a semi-dry pressing method. At the same time, the required raw materials are first prepared, clay is thoroughly crushed and warm up. Next introduces the charge. The composition is adjusted to homogeneous consistency. At this time, water is added to it (no more than 10%). This component is necessary that the solution acquired due value of humidity.

The harvested mass is moved to a special bunker. After that, the composition is sent to the dispenser moving back and forth. When the items are formed, they are usually sent straight to the bottom punch form, which descends along with the workpiece. After that, the top half of the press goes down on the bricks. It turns out such pressure on the products so that they get more dense.

Nizhny Punson in the completion of production work squeezes a brick from the form. At this time, the carriage with the dispenser moves to the firing in conditions of 1000 degrees. If bricks are produced in accordance with this technology, they will not need to be dried, so there is less time to prepare. In addition, the described method is much cheaper than plastic molding.

Pros and cons

Refractory brick, like other building materials, has both positive and negative sides.

First you should familiarize yourself with positive:

  • In most cases, such products have a small weight, so it is convenient to work with them;
  • are high strength – they are very difficult to damage or break;
  • able to withstand very high temperatures;
  • feature heat capacity and thermal inertia;
  • may have different forms and sizes;
  • without consequences transfer the differences in temperature modes;
  • no negative external factors are not afraid;
  • Have an attractive appearance and different color, for example, white or red (most popular options).

    Now it is worth familiar with the disadvantages of these products:

    • they are quite difficult cut and cut, because they differ in high strength;
    • have a higher cost than standard products.


    Modern heat-resistant brick has its own technical characteristics that need to be familiar with, if you are going to work with this building material.

    Consider a list of main characteristics peculiar to such bricks.

    • Low thermal conductivity – thanks to the brick of this type, it will be possible to maintain the required temperature in the inner part of thermal units.
    • Heat resistance is the main technical characteristic and a distinctive feature of this building material. Heat resistant brick in power to withstand the effect of more than 1,500 degrees.
    • Modern refractory brick is not afraid of aggressive chemicals.
    • Similar products leave plants with such dimensional parameters: 23 x 6.5 x 6.5 cm, 230 x 114 x 75 mm, 230 x 114 x 40 mm, 250 x 124 x 65 mm and 345 x 150 x 75 mm. Deviations from the listed dimensional parameters are allowed, but very small. For example, brick thickness may differ no more than 2 mm, length – up to 5 mm, width – up to 3 mm.
    • The thermal conductivity of such building materials is quite low.


    Do not think that the heat-resistant brick does not have subspecies. Today on sale you can meet several varieties of similar products. We will get acquainted closer with the most popular and in demand products and their properties.

    The basic varieties of this material include the following options.

    • Main brick. Materials with such titles are used in tandem with lime-magnesia solution. Used in steel production.

    • Carbonistic. The material of this type most often acts as the basis of domain designs.

    • Quartz. Components such as quartz and sandstone are present in these options. Specified stone is not designed for the neighborhood with other building materials. Exceptions from this rule – metal, fire. Extremely negative on quartz brick affect any alkalis.

    • Alumina. This brick is considered the most common. It is withstanding the effect of temperatures from 1000 to 1300 degrees. The alumina blocks are famous for the ability to degrees the effect of temperature jumps. Often, the specified raw materials are addressed in the manufacture of stoves (both home and industrial) and fiber chambers.

    • Wedge. Specified brick is usually produced with dimensions of 300x300x300 mm. Often, this building material is treated in the manufacture of industrial structures. It has a label of the Shtsu.

    • Polician. Specified brick produced with labeling PB. Its refractory is limited by a value of 1670 degrees Celsius. As for the porosity of the half-sized material, it is 24%. The content of additional components in these products varies from 14 to 28%.

    • Magnezite. Magnesite bricks can boast of excellent refractory qualities. In their production, such a component like magnesite is burned under the action of high temperatures (1500-1600 degrees). As a result of this processing, very strong and heat-resistant products are obtained, which are permissible to start in the industries.

    • Lightweight. No less popular Currently lightweight brick. This wear-resistant and durable material smoothly transfers the impact of aggressive chemicals, has a small weight. Basically such a light raw materials are used for the manufacture of evaporating units, warehouses, boilers and other devices. Work with it is easy and convenient, because it weighs it quite a bit, especially in comparison with the analogues.

      In addition to those listed, there are other subspecies of wear-resistant refractory bricks, for example:

      • silica;
      • aluminum-silicate;
      • Mullite;
      • dynasy;
      • Corundic and others.

      All refractory bricks are marked in accordance with their properties and composition. So, the first letter in Mark denotes the name and a certain kind of product. If it is the letter “sh”, then the stone is chamoten, if “d” – dynasov, and if “M” – Mullite.

      As for the second letter in the marking of heat-resistant building materials, it is designed to demonstrate the largest temperature on which the stone is designed. For instance, The most popular are such products:

      • Sha, Shak 1400;
      • SB 1350;
      • Shus, sew 1250;
      • PB (half-breed) 1250;
      • PV 1250.

      The dimensional parameters of heat-resistant brick are recognized by digital designation, which is preceded by two first alphabetic designations of the goods brand. For example, product Sha 5 is produced with dimensions in 230x114x65 mm, and the products with marking Sha 8 have dimensions of 250x124x65 mm.

      There are also products with labeling SB 22, having a trapezoidal form. Their dimensional parameters reach 230x114x65x55 mm. After digital designations in the marking, there are alphabetic designations that are an abbreviation of the plant manufactured by the product.

      How to choose?

      The choice of refractory bricks should be approached especially responsibly, because very important tasks are imposed on it. This building material should be unable to coexist side by side with high temperatures, and sometimes an open flame.

      When choosing a refractory brick, it is necessary to rely on the following important criteria.

      • Size, weight. It is imperative to select high-quality materials of suitable sizes. It is advisable to calculate before buying, the materials in which volume you need. It is better to acquire them with a small stock in order not to face the lack of building materials.
      • Mark. On the packaging with bricks, the brand is always indicated, which they belong. It is impossible to leave this mark without attention, because it will depend on it, the material is suitable for certain works or not.
      • Quality of bricks. One of the most important positions occupies the quality of the execution of fire-resistant brick. In no case should there be any defects, otherwise the design of this building materials will not be reliable and strong, which can lead to very sad consequences.
      • Number of pores. In the refractory brick should not be too many pores in the structure. It can increase the hygroscopicity of the blocks that for furnaces is undesirable. Due to impressive hygroscopicity, the stone can be crossed and the deformation, and the whole design collapses with it.

      • Surface. Look at the surface of the fire-resistant brick. It should not be present noticeable. If such is still visible, it will indicate that the workpieces in the manufacturing process were peroled.
      • Sound. Not every consumer knows that the quality of the brick can be determined by the sound, which comes from it when hitting. To check the condition of the material, you should slightly knock on it, for example, by iron subject. The sound from the brick must come clear and ringing. If he is deaf, then the purchase of such building materials is better to refuse.
      • Colour. It is important to take into account the fact that from the color of the heat-resistant brick, its quality does not depend. Building material can have almost any shade, for example, beige, yellow, red or beige. All that will be required of you – to purchase a party in which all bricks will have the same color. If in the laid row at least 1 thing will be different color, it will be dramatically highlighted on a general background.
      • A store. Experts strongly recommend buying refractory bricks only in proven outlets that have a good reputation in the city of your stay.

      It is advisable to request the seller quality certificates for selected products. If you refused to be denied documents, then it is better to refuse to buy a brick – it may be low-quality.

      How to cut?

      Many users are wondering than you can effectively cut the refractory brick. And this question is very relevant, because this material is high strength and not the most supplied in cutting.

      For example, the common heat-resistant chamotte brick is usually cut using a specialized machine.

      Also permissible to turn to the grinder with a segment diamond disk installed on it. However, this tool has no coolant feed function.

      The problem can be solved if the bricks in the reservoir filled with water are in advance, about 20 minutes. After such a procedure, they will be easily processed, as if a tool with fluid feed was used.

      Useful advice

      Use only high-quality refractory bricks with perfect dimensional parameters. The accuracy of the forms and sizes of these products is governed by GOST 8691- 73. Note that only the minimum deviations from the standard are allowed.

      Keep in mind that heat-resistant carbon bricks and options based on refractory metals are usually not used when constructing ordinary household stoves, cladding chambers of combustion or manufacture of reinforcement structures. Such varieties are usually allowed only if we are talking about industrial facilities.

      If you are facing refractory brick fireplace or oven in the house, then you should pay attention to the state of old seams. If they are dry, they will need to be modified, otherwise the finish may subsequently move away from the basis.

      Remember – when dropping, high-quality refractory brick should not crumble. He must decay on fairly large pieces.

      It is not recommended to use materials with a white chain on the surface – these are deposits of limestone. Materials with similar defects in construction work is not worth using.

      Do not confuse chammed and chimney bricks. Choir options make red clay. They do not have refractory qualities.

      Read more about refractory brick, suitable for masonry furnaces or fireplaces, learn from the video below.

      Rate the article
      ( No ratings yet )
      Add comments

      ;-) :| :x :twisted: :smile: :shock: :sad: :roll: :razz: :oops: :o :mrgreen: :lol: :idea: :grin: :evil: :cry: :cool: :arrow: :???: :?: :!: