In the process of construction or overhaul, the basis of the strength and sustainability of the erected structure are. Thanks to the use of foundation bolts, it is possible to firmly fix the bearing colons in the building, and also secure the necessary equipment. The principle of operation of such anchor fasteners is based on “anchor”.
Despite the fact that each type of foundation is a solid and reliable system, to connect it with the walls is recommended using specially intended mounting elements. They are foundation bolts. They are inserted into the design even until the fill of the concrete solution or after it. In this article we will describe in detail about the nuances of their installation.
In construction for fastening reinforced concrete or steel structures to the base, special fasteners are used – anchor bolts. Their use makes it possible to significantly increase the stability of the construction structure itself. But also the foundation bolts allow reliably to cut the bearing colons and other necessary elements of the erected object. Their principle of operation is based on the type of anchor, mounted in the construction of the most construction material, firmly fastened with it. It is very important to correctly pick up the desired anchor elements of fasteners.
Production of this fasteners is carried out on a special document – It is famous to all professional builders GOST 24379.1-80. Cropped into the base of the building, the anchor bolts create a solid compound that can withstand heavy loads (dynamic and static). But this is subject to construction technology. To ensure all this, exceptionally high-quality materials are applied in the manufacture. On top of the bolts are additionally covered with a layer of zinc, which will remove from environmental influence.
Anchoring is used to build a foundation of various types. Therefore, such products may be different: size, steel brand, weight and length. Today in the domestic market in this segment presents this product from 15 centimeters to 5 meters.
As for the types of foundation bolts, they are classified for several species.
- Curved. They are performed in the form of a metal rod, one end of which has a curved shape. Externally, it looks like a hook. Designed for installation in reinforced concrete foundation and compounds of large-sized equipment.
- Compound. The length of them can reach several meters. The design consists of elements such as a threaded stud, anchor plate, coupling, nut and metal pin. These fasteners are used in the case when there is a need to perform a screed of two structural elements. One end is in concrete, and the second is screwed into the coupling. The diameter of the composite bolt is different (M16, M20, M24, M28, M30, M36 and others). You can choose it from a special table.
- Straight. Bolt Design Looks like an ordinary metal pin. At one end there is a thread. Its length can be 140 centimeters. A distinctive feature here is the fact that a straight bolt can be mounted in the ready-made foundation. For their reliable fixing, a special glue composition is applied or cement.
- With a special anchor plate. Production of such fasteners is performed, based on the current GOST 24379.1-80. One part of the bolt is fixed even until the foundation is justified. This is carried out due to welding or threaded connection. A feature of such fasteners is the size. It can reach 5 meters.
- Removable type. There is a special anchor system here. With it, it is carried out reliable fixation in reinforced concrete, brick or stone foundation. Thanks to this fastener, it is possible to install different engineering and technical structures. The lower cake of the bolt is laid in the foundation, and the upper stud with thread is mounted upon completion of concreting.
- With a conical tip. The collet bolt is mounted directly to the foundation. Purpose area – fastening boilers to the wall, furniture items and much more. Thanks to the Special Canguble Type Canggue, crushed when twisting, provides durable and reliable fixation.
Before starting the installation of this type of fastening, you need to calculate the necessary bolts according to the project documentation. This is done to determine their operational characteristics. Consider the distance from the edge of the foundation, as well as the depth of the hole. Anchor bolts are kept thanks to such features like gluing, emphasis and friction. As for the stop, this is the load that fasteners takes on and compensates for its constructive characteristics. The load provides friction. Well, gluing is compensation for these loads due to “tangent stresses”.
But it is also worth emphasizing your attention to the fact that the size of the anchor along with the depth of the seal should not be greater than the height of the foundation. This is very important, otherwise, at the time of the tightening of the bolt itself will occur fixation. You will not achieve the required reliability of such mounting. Connection with the stove should be hard and durable.
Before installing the bolt in the foundation you need to perform its visual inspection for the availability of possible defects in the design.
Installation of anchor fasteners is not a complex procedure. It can be performed independently without the involvement of the team of professionals.
However, for this you need to adhere to a number of basic rules.
- Those thoroughly study the plan of construction object, and determine the exact locations for installing anchor bolts.
- Control the depth of immersion of this attachment to the already formed foundation. She should not be more of its thickness.
- Be sure to take into account the distance between the next fasteners. The calculation is carried out quite simple: these are two magnitudes of the depth of the seal itself.
- Foundation bolts must stand strictly vertically.
- Formation of a block of this type of fastening. After the complete drying of the concrete, you need to make all the ends of the bolts using an iron plate or boards with pre-drilled holes. Due to this, the reliability of the whole design will be high.
- If you are creating anchor fastening before filling the foundation, it is also worth calculating them as accurately as possible according to the building project.
If you doubt your abilities, the installation of anchor bolts is best entrusted with real professionals of their case. It will not only save your strength, nerves, time, but also money for the repair of the whole design.
If you want to pick up the highest quality anchor attachment, then it should take into account the following main characteristics:
- the load that the bolt is able to withstand;
- required length;
- the type of fastening, relying on the design features of the foundation;
- View, strength and self-based structure;
- distance between holes;
- bulkiness and volume of the design you need to hang.
If you have a removable design, the anchor reinforcement is mounted before concreting. Studs are installed upon completion of the fill of the foundation. As for the size of this mounting element, it is selected based on the weight and size of the design itself. Than it will be more, the longer the anchor bolt must be. Its size can always be determined based on the labeling. The first digit here shows the outer diameter, the second is internal, and the third corresponds to the total length.
As for the installation of anchor bolts, he is the same everywhere. Exception is a scoring fastener. Here you do not need to turn the nut, and score the anchor with a hammer.
Recommendations for the selection and installation of fundamental bolts in the following video.