Purpose and sizes of single bricks

Already several millennia clay remains the main building material. During this time, humanity made many discoveries, developed unique technologies. However, ceramic brick remains for the construction of a classic material. Its operational qualities can be called unique.

What it is?

Single brick has several names, which determine its further use:

  • worker;
  • normal;
  • standard.

The product is distinguished by a smooth surface. For individual construction, sometimes used bricks with a corrugated surface. Manufacturers produce these beautiful products with hollowness up to 70%.

Volume 52 products takes one square meter. To fill the cubic meter you will need 512 pieces. Single material is divided into several groups:

  • Full-time;
  • with technological holes.

The product is produced by several brands: M75, M200. The number indicates the strength of the material. Than it is higher, the stronger the product. For the construction of a small one-story building, M75 and M100 are suitable for the construction of M75 and M100. When multi-storey buildings are built, use higher strength products. Only brands from M125 and higher are able to withstand heavy loads.

Ceramic single brick never rotes, it is not subject to the destruction of various microorganisms. When building a house of single elements is allowed for overlapping to use reinforced concrete plates. Small brick dimensions make it possible to apply this building material to create complex designs. As well as such bricks decorated already built buildings.

Varieties

Builders use ceramic products for different purposes. They are divided into several types:

  • hollow
  • facing
  • figured
  • Forty

The most economical is the hollow product. Block is much more economical than a full-time option. The product is distinguished by a small mass, low frost resistance. Moreover, thermal insulation increases due to the presence of several holes in single brick.

In the full-length product there are no pores, so such a building material is characterized by several technological parameters:

  • high strength;
  • frost resistance;
  • resistance to mechanical stress.

One of the disadvantages of single ceramic brick is considered poor thermal insulation, since the material has low porosity.

Facing (figured brick) are mainly used in decorative purposes. From this material make curly facades, decorated round arches. For these purposes, both types of bricks are used at the same time: hollow, full-time.

Ceramic single building brick is divided into several groups.

  1. Standard. It makes walls, partitions and other similar products. For processing it is necessary to cementing walls with subsequent plaster.
  2. Facial. Used to finish the front of the facade.
  3. High-strength. Different from other high-strength products. Has high density, has excellent waterproof properties.

Technological characteristics

The main distinguishing quality of single brown (red) brick is considered increased strength. This building material has a high resistance to internal loads, seeking to destroy the structure of the product. The product is denoted by the Literary “M”, showing the amount of strength. For example, M100 means that with strong compression brick is able to withstand the pressure of 100 kg per 1 kV. centimeter.

Another important parameter is the bending strength. The full-time block of the M100 brand, according to the current standard, should freely withstand the pressure on the break, equal to 22 kg per square. centimeter. Hollow brick can withstand only 16 kg.

With such a difference in the strength of the product, the same brand has coinciding characteristics. When designing the building, not only the strength limit is taken into account. The calculation takes several additional parameters:

  • kind of solution;
  • Brick brand:
  • solidification conditions;
  • Quality seam.

For the construction of the building, a brick is selected with certain properties of moisture absorption. This building material is not afraid of temperature drops. Brick freely withstands the minus temperature, not afraid of heat. Moreover, its technological characteristics retain the initial value for a long time.

Ceramic single brick, if you hit it, must ring a ring. This is a sign of high-quality firing. A brick having melted edges with a highlighted black core is a thinned. This material is used only to create a foundation for low buildings. It is absolutely not suitable for wall masonry.

The mass of a full-scale standard single brick does not exceed 4 kg. Its density determines the degree of pressure, which one cubic meter of the product is able to withstand with strong compression.

Main advantages

A single ceramic block is considered to be a classic building material used to build various residential premises.

Reliability of the product, its high characteristics are proved by centuries. For so many years, single brick has become a recognized leader in the construction of various structures.

Ecologically clean substances are used to produce ceramic products:

  • sand;
  • clay.

To get a high-strength ceramic brick, there are no additional impurities at the factories.

High strength distinguishes this building material. Its value reaches the level of natural granite. From ceramic full-scale brick will not be difficult to build a building, about 1 thousand height. meters.

This material is distinguished by its durability. Buildings built from bricks hundreds of years ago, stand today. They are so durable that they can be freely exploited. Brick structures have a huge warranty period – about 100-150 years.

Single brick freely transfers high humidity. He dries quickly. Thanks to his “breathable ability,” a favorable climate is always preserved in the room.

Brick is distinguished by a low value of moisture absorption. It does not exceed 6%. This building material has high resistant to aggressive environments. It is not afraid of acids and alkalis.

Brick is considered to be fireproof material. It is not burning. Even with a very strong frost, the properties of the brick remain unchanged. Buildings from this material boast gorgeous soundproofing.

Walls laid out of single ceramic bricks require additional insulation. They are so warm that they do not need to be placed mineral wool or other insulation materials. A favorable microclimate is always created in the building. Thanks to the capillary structure, natural air conditioning occurs in the room.

Due to high strength and reliability, red brick buildings have no major repairs for a long time.

Where applies

This building material was widely used in the construction and finishing of various designs:

  • the construction of the foundation;
  • Installation of interroom partitions;
  • installation of bearing structures;
  • outdoor facing of buildings;
  • Construction of fireplaces with subsequent finish;
  • laying stoves;
  • Finish indoors.

In practice, the walls of the building are erected from a single brick, various partitions are assembled. Large construction organizations prefer to work with such material. Reliable and beautiful buildings are obtained, which will probably preserve a hundred years without repair.

Overall dimensions of single brick

When there appeared conveyor production, it was necessary to standardize brick dimensions. In the past century, a mandatory size was established in the USSR: 250x120x65 mm. The weight of the product should not be above 4.3 kg. Nowadays, standard dimensions are established by Goste.

In European countries, Russian brick has the RF designation. The most sought-after brick sizes in Europe were:

  • NF – Normal.
  • DF – Slim.

Their dimensions are somewhat less than that of the classic Russian product. In the West, several sizes are produced:

  • 240x115x71 mm;
  • 240x115x52 mm;
  • 200x100x50 (65) mm;
  • 250x85x65 mm.

In the last decade, a ceramic single unit can be found in the market, about 500 mm long. Therefore, before starting construction, it is necessary to provide in advance which sizes of the product must be used so that the “inappropriate” situation does not occur in the masonry.

In European countries, the optimal size for the construction of the building is the brand DF. Laying of such a product meets architectural classics. However, NF size makes it possible to save a solution. This size allows you to quickly erect walls on a large area. On one square meter placed 60 “thin”, as well as 50 “normal” products.

For the USSR, accelerating the pace of construction, simultaneous material savings, was considered the most important task. Therefore, since the 30s, the buildings began to build from blocks with dimensions 250x120x88 mm. A little later appeared double brick. His dimensions reached 250x120x138 mm.

These products were made by hollow. It made it possible to reduce the mass of brick walls. For multi-storey buildings that do not have a concrete frame, such a decrease is of great importance.

To give the building a decorative look, quite often brickwork created from two types of blocks. Standard products were used together with bricks, characterized by enhanced dimensions.

Currently, the block 250x85x65mm (0.,00). The fact is that the facing ceramic product can be used without carrying out additional heat insulation. But the principal requirement remains a decrease in pressure on the foundation, especially when concerns restoration works in the old building. Non-standard sizes help solve this problem.

          Builders consider ceramic products most suitable material for cladding. To implement the architectural plan, it is necessary to have products of different shades, all kinds of forms and species. For these purposes, industry produces standard blocks of several types:

          • Glazed
          • Artificially aged
          • Texture
          • Prank

          These beautiful products are perfectly combined in masonry. They do not reduce the durability of the construction with the mandatory observance of a single size.

          The use of one standard size makes it possible to accurately calculate the required amount of material for building a building. And the error will be minimal. The house built from the ceramic block will be warm, reliable and durable.

          About the types of brick, its characteristics, brands and methods of application, see the video below.

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