The hypersed brick is a universal construction and finishing material and is widely used to build buildings, facing facades and finishing of small architectural forms. The material appeared on the market at the end of the last century and almost immediately became very popular and popular.
Characteristics and composition
Hypersed brick is an artificial stone, for the manufacture of which the granite screening, seven, water and cement are used. Cement in such compositions acts as a binder, and its share in relation to the total mass is usually at least 15%. Maintenance waste and blades of blast furnaces can also be used as raw materials. From which of these components will be used, the color of the products depends. So, the obsection of granite gives a gray shade, and the presence of the sewer stains the brick in yellowish brown tones.
In terms of its operational characteristics, the material has enough similarities with concrete and is characterized by high strength and resistance to aggressive impacts of the external environment. In their reliability and durability, the pressed brick is not at all inferior to clinker models and can be used as the main building material when the capital walls are erected. Visually, he resembles a natural stone something, thanks to which he got widespread in the design of facades of buildings and fences. In addition, the cement mortar is able to mix well with different pigments and dyes, which allows you to produce brick in a wide range of colors and use it as a decorative lining.
The main characteristics of hypercasted bricks that define its working qualities are density, thermal conductivity, water absorption and frost resistance.
- The strength of hypercasted brick is largely determined by the material density, which is on average, 1600 kg / m3. Each series of artificial stone corresponds to a specific strength index, which is denoted by M (n), where N denotes the strength of the material that the concrete products range from 100 to 400 kg / cm2. So, models having an M-350 and M-400 index possess the best indicators of strength. Such a brick can be used to build the masonry of the bearing wall structures, while the products of the M-100 brand are facial models and are used only for finishing.
- No less significant stone characteristic is its thermal conductivity. The thermal safety ability of the material and the possibility of its use for the construction of residential buildings depends on this indicator. Full-skinned hyperpressed models have a lower thermal conductivity index equal to 0.43 conventional units. When using such a material, it should be borne in mind that it is not able to delay heat inside the room and will unhindered to bring it out. This must be taken into account when choosing a material for the construction of capital walls and, if necessary, take an additional set of measures to insulate. The highest thermal conductivity indicator, equal to 1.09 conventional units, possess hollow porous models. In such bricks there is an inner layer of air, which does not allow heat to go beyond the placement.
- The frost resistance of hypercasted products is denoted by the index F (N), where N is the number of frost cycles, which can transfer the material without losing the main working qualities. The porosity of the brick has a great influence on this indicator, which in most modifications ranges from 7 to 8%. The frost resistance of some models can reach 300 cycles, which allows the use of material for the construction of structures in any climatic zones, including the regions of the Far North.
- Water absorption of bricks means how much moisture is able to absorb a stone for a certain amount of time. In extruded bricks, this figure varies within 3-7% of the total volume of the product, which allows without fear to use the material for the outer finish of the facades in areas with a wet and sea climate.
The hypersed stone is produced in standard sizes of 250x120x65 mm, and the weight of one full-scale product is 4.2 kg.
The hyperpress is an obligational method of production, in which limestone and cement are mixed, bred with water and after adding the dye mix well. Semi-dry pressing method involves the use of a very small amount of water, whose share does not exceed 10% of the total volume of raw materials. The resulting masses form bricks of hollow or full-scale execution and send them under 300-ton hyperpress. Indicators of pressure reaches 25 MPa.
Next, the pallet with the billets are placed in a steam room, where at a temperature of 70 degrees the products are located for 8-10 hours. At the stage of steaming, cement has time to gain moisture you need and brick acquires up to 70% of its valuable strength. The remaining 30% of the product take over the month after the manufacture, after which they become fully ready for use. However, you can immediately carry and store the brick immediately, without waiting, while the products are closer to the necessary strength.
The land brick after manufacture does not have a cement film, due to which it has much higher adhesive properties than concrete. The absence of a film increases the ability of the material to self-ventilation and allows the walls to breathe. In addition, products are distinguished by a smooth surface and proper geometric shapes. This greatly facilitates the work of masonry and allows you to make a laying more accurate. At the moment, a single standard for hypersed brick is not developed. Material is available according to standards designated in GOST 6133-99 and 53-2007, which regulate only the size and shape of products.
Pros and cons
High Consumer Demand on Dry Pressing Concrete Bricks due to a number of indisputable advantages of this material.
- Increased stability of the stone to the effects of extreme temperatures and high humidity allows the use of a stone during construction and cladding in any climatic zones without limitation.
- Easy installation is due to the right geometric shapes and smooth faces of products, which significantly saves the solution and facilitates the work of masonry.
- High bending strength and separation favorably distinguishes hyperpressed models from other types of bricks. The material is not inclined to the appearance of cracks, the formation of chips and dents and has a long service life. Products are able to maintain their operational properties throughout two hundred years.
- Due to the lack of concrete film brick surface, the material is characterized by high adhesion with cement mortar and can be used at any time of the year.
- Absolute safety for human health and environmental cleanliness of the stone are due to the absence of harmful impurities in its composition.
- The surface of the brick has dirt-repellent properties, due to which dust and soot do not absorb and wash off rain.
- A wide range and a wide variety of shades greatly facilitates the choice and allows you to purchase material for every taste.
The disadvantages of hyperpressed brick include a large weight of the material. This obliges to measure the extremely permitted load on the foundation with a mass of brickwork. In addition, the stone is inclined to moderate deformation that occurs due to the temperature expansion of the material, and over time it can begin to swell and crack. The masonry is loosened and it becomes possible to pull the brick. As for cracks, they can reach 5 mm widths and change it during the day. Thus, when cooled the facade, the cracks increase significantly, and when he was heated – decrease. Such mobility of brick masonry can deliver a lot of problems with the walls, as well as with gates and gates built from full-length brick. Among the minuses, the prosecution of the material to burnout, as well as the high cost of products, reaching 33 rubles per brick.
The classification of hypersed brick occurs in several signs, the main of which is the functional purpose of the material. For this criterion, three categories of stone are distinguished: ordinary, facing and figured (shaped).
Among ordinary models, full and hollow products are highlighted. The first is distinguished by the absence of inland cavities, high weight and high thermal conductivity. For the construction of housing, such a material is not suitable, but when the arches, columns and other small architectural forms are used very often. Hollow models weigh an average of 30% less than their full-scale analogs and are characterized by low thermal conductivity and a more moderate temperature deformation. Such models can be used to build bearing walls of houses, however, due to their high cost, it is not so often applied for these purposes.
An interesting embodiment of a hypercasted hollow brick is the LEGO model, having 2 through holes with a diameter of 75 mm each. Brick got its name due to visual similarity with a children’s designer, in which vertical holes serve to connect elements. When laying such a stone, in principle, it is impossible to move and disrupt the order. This allows you to even experience masters to perform perfectly smooth masonry.
Facing brick is produced in a very wide assortment. In addition to smooth models, there are interesting options that imitate natural or wild stone. And if the first is more or less clear, then the second is called the torn or brushed stone and look very unusual. The surface of such products has numerous chippers and is cursed by a network of small cracks and chosen. This makes the material very similar to antique building stones, and at home built from it, almost indistinguishable from the vintage medieval castles.
Shaped models are hypercastered products of non-standard forms and are used for construction and finishing of curvilinear architectural structures.
Another criterion for classifying brick is its size. Hypersed models are available in three traditional sizes. The length and height of the products are 250 and 65 mm, respectively, and their width can change. Standard bricks, it is 120 mm, in spoonful – 85, and in narrow – 60 mm.
Features of application
Hypersed models are an ideal material option for creating complex embossed surfaces and may be subject to any type of mechanical processing. The stone is considered a real find for designers and allows them to implement the most bold solutions. However, when used, a number of recommendations should be followed. So, during the construction of fences and facades, it is necessary to reinstall the masonry with the help of galvanized grid with small cells. In addition, it is desirable to form clearances for temperature expansion, having them every 2 cm. In general, for the construction of bearing walls of residential buildings to use a full-length hyperpressed brick is not recommended. For these purposes, the use of only hollow ordinary models is allowed.
When the building is already built, then in the process of its operation, white spots and divorces are often formed, which are called zapol. The reason for their appearance is the passage of the stone of water contained in the cement solution, in the process of which salts are precipitated on the inside of the brick. Next, the salts perform on the surface and crystallize. This, in turn, greatly spoils the appearance of the masonry and the overall appearance.
To prevent or minimize the appearance of elevations, it is recommended to use the M400 grade cement, the percentage of soluble salts in which is very low. The solution should be stacked as thick and try not to smear it on the front surface of the stone. In addition, it is undesirable to engage in the construction during the rain, and after the end of each stage of the work, you need to put the masonry with a tarralet. Prevent the appearance of heaps will also help the coating of the facade by hydrophobic solutions and the speedy equipment of the built building of the water pipeline system.
If the supremes appeared, then you need to mix 2 st. spoons 9% vinegar with a liter of water and process white divorces. Vinegar can be replaced with a solution of ammonia or 5% hydrochloric acid. Good results gives the processing of walls by means of “Facade-2” and “PF typper”. The consumption of the first drug will be half liters per m2 of the surface, and the second – 250 ml. If the facade treatment is not possible, then you should be patient and wait a couple of years: during this time, the rain will wash all the whiteness and will return the building a primordial appearance.
Relying on the professional opinion of builders, hypersed brick shows excellent adhesion strength with cement mortar, exceeding similar ceramic brick indicators by 50-70%. In addition, the index of the intraloous density of the masonry of concrete products is 1.7 times higher than the same values of ceramic products. The same situation with layered strength, it is also higher in hyperpressive bricks. There is also a high decorative component of the material. Houses lined with hypersed stone look very worthy and rich. Attention is drawn to the increased durability of the material to the effects of low temperatures and high humidity, which is explained by low water absorption of products and excellent frost resistance.
Thus, hyperpressed models benefit from several indicators from other types of material and, with the correct choice and competent installation, are able to provide solid and durable masonry.
About how to lay hypersed bricks, look in the following video.