The foundation is the base on which the entire building holds. That is why it is necessary to extremely seriously treat his device. You need to get advice from professionals, produce a large number of calculations, check everything and analyze. Often, in order to save funds, people carry out the dig of the pit on their own, but in such cases it is important to understand what and how to do.
Gray is something that the device is completed. But this began this process takes from the calculations that go to the preparatory stage. It includes the search for special transport, the purchase of the necessary tool, workwear and equipment, selection of the work brigade (if necessary). At each stage, it is necessary to pay great attention to the quality of the work performed, as the reliability and safety of the structure depends on this.
Beginner builders often think about what time it is better to carry out work on the chopping kittle. On the surface lies only one obvious fact – it is not worth doing this in winter, as it is extremely difficult to dig a frill earth. However, this does not mean that all other seasons are suitable for work.
A good specialist will answer that the appropriate seasons are two: summer and autumn. It is impossible to carry out this kind of spring. At this time of the year, the processes of defrosting the Earth begin, as a result of which a large amount of water is allocated, which will need to be reset. Therefore, additional costs for specialized techniques will be required.
Selection of a successful season to start work – a good way to save money. But if you still have to work with a wet soil, remember that it is necessary to equip a special system for moisture removal (for these purposes the drainage of rubbank is built).
The autumn season is suitable for this activity not completely. You can only work in its first, warm part. In the late autumn, frosts are already beginning, the soil behaves unstable – freezes at night, it hips off the day. It can impose an imprint on the course and quality of work.
Of course, it is impossible to unambiguously ban the dig of a kittle in the cold season. If there is an insurmountable need for its urgent creation, it is possible. However, it will have to take into account that this is “pleasure” will cost you one and a half – two times more.
If you want to make a pit under the ground floor or under the foundation of an ordinary house with your own hands, first of all, you need to prepare a drawing and work plan.
Before starting work, you need to clearly decide what kind of pit you need to dig. It depends on the type of foundation.
There are several parameters that need to be taken into account when separating the kittlers into separate categories:
- the presence or absence of slopes, their number;
- the presence or absence of angular fasteners;
- the presence or absence of vertical inclined walls;
- Trench or pita (this aspect is determined by the type of foundation – slab or tape).
If you build a foundation of a ribbon type, then you need to dug a trench-trench passing around the perimeter, as well as in those places where carrier walls will be.
If the foundation is planned, which is called the slab (that is, the house will have a basement), then the kitty must dig around the perimeter of the building and in the place where the basement device is planned.
Here is a list of earthworks that need to be carried out first:
- determine what type of soil refers to the site, to conduct an examination (this is necessary for planning the depth of the foundation);
- investigate the technical characteristics of the construction to determine the load on the foundation (the maximum is taken into account with the entire specificity affecting the weight, up to the roofing materials);
- Calculate the depth of the pit (this type of calculations is best trusted by professionals);
- Analyze the category and condition of the climate characteristic of this strip in order to identify seasonal grounds of soil.
Preparation and calculation
Before starting work on digging the pit, it is necessary to calculate its length and width. Of course, they depend on the parameters of the building itself (its length and width), as well as from the depth of the sole of the structure. There is a rule to determine the size of the construction: the size of the foundation must be greater than the width and the length of the facade by 40 cm, since the foundation is also required under the front finish. Consequently, you need to add another 20 cm on each side.
As already mentioned, the size of the pit depends on the depth of the occurrence, since it should have a trapezoid shape in the transverse section. This is due to safety appliances. The walls (when the soil from the pita) should have slopes. Extraked for 40 centimeters Dimensions of the house will be designed only on the bottom of the pit. At the same time, the top must exceed these sizes by value equal to the depth of the sole. It will help ensure the proportion with the slope of the walls by 45 degrees. This is done in order to protect the walls from the shower of the soil.
Zero level will look like this: the dimensions of the pit (length and width) will be equal to the size of the house (accordingly length and width), increased by the size of the depth of the pit. The dimensions of the pit at the level of the sole will be the same as the facade parameters, increased by 40 centimeters. If the sole is shuffled by 0.5 m, you can not adhere to this rule, since then the walls of the pit will be vertical.
To determine the area of the sole, it is recommended to divide the pre-calculated load on a certain value of the soil and the level of its permissible load (this data is obtained by conducting an examination). After the size of the pit under the foundation is calculated, it will be possible to start it.
The process of digging the pit is divided into several conditional stages of work.
- Prepare a plot for the foundation, 40 centimeters of the upper layer of soil are removed.
- Pumped out moisture if it is formed, remove excess water from the site.
- Remove the Earth (to the depth calculated earlier). If the cutting is deeper than 125 centimeters, special bars are put to prevent the laspies of the earth along the walls.
- It is arranged in the pitchers, if the depth of the soil is approximately 500 centimeters (calculation of the depth of the stage is better to entrust the experienced specialist).
Development for different types of foundations
Under the foundation of the ribbon type
If the construction of a ribbon type foundation is scheduled, which will be placed in the ground, which provides for formwork in its inner part. Dimensions are calculated according to such a scheme: the size of the house (length and width) increase by 0.3-0.4 meters. The width of the trench itself is the sum of the width of the walls and the gap of 0.5 meters with the calculation of the formwork. It is important to know that the size of the trench should be at least one meter (the calculation takes into account the fact that the minimum tape is 0.4 meters).
First, outline the dimensions of the future pit on the ground, after removing the soil layer, which is 20-30 centimeters, for alignment. Choose the highest angle and begin to dig (manually or excavator), flowing into the soil in the perimeter and controlling the depth using a milestone.
The walls of the pit powered by more than 0.5 meters are strengthened using shields on struts that are removed after the formwork is completed. Extracted soil stored nearby for referring and drainage.
Under the foundation of the plate
For the foundation of this type other rules apply.
- In the case of a small plug, its parameters are equal to the length and width of the facade of the building. In case of substantial blowout – the sum of the length (width) of the facade and the height of the foundation.
- Development occurs in steps: the soil is removed by layers of 0.5 meters. Each of the layers has smaller dimensions than the previous one. As a result, the walls should turn out to be 0.5 meters high and 25 centimeters wide.
- Handmade work here is not used, digging is produced by special equipment.
The first stage lies in the removal of the 30-centimeter soil layer. Then the size of the pit is applied to the surface. On these borders make the initial recess of a depth of 0.5 meters. Soil is removed from the central part to the edges.
From the first layer they are transferred to the next, reducing the border by 25 centimeters, and so – to the bottom of the kittle. The extracted soil sorted on the sand and the rest. Sand leave for submail.
Under columno foundation
In this case, make a small trench (up to 0.5 meters) on the boundaries of the facade. On the day they create shurtes under the installation of columns. Remove the soil from the site begin 20-30 centimeters, the edges are placed, they take off the trench of 0.5 meters, they do shurts on the day. Using milestones, depth is controlled by a standard way.
If the pile foundation is done, then the needs in the pit no. The wells are drilled in which the piles are then mounted. Copk in this case is not needed at all.
Tips for specialists
First of all, the construction of the kitty must be carried out in strict accordance with the regulatory provisions enshrined in SNiP. They are regulated by the norms of the size of the kittleins for specific types of soils and T. D. Also, any work that are conducted in the creation of a pit should be accompanied by strict compliance with safety and technologically correct techniques.
Better all the works of this kind of trusting professionals who have appropriate training, Education, experience and (what is important) Documents giving them the right to the production of relevant work. But, unfortunately, life makes its own adjustments. Is indisputable to the fact that independent construction of construction work allows you to save tangible amounts for the budget.
However, this situation has a reverse side. With an independent building, the risk of mistakes that may be irreparable. Well, if it turns out only in spoiled material, spent money and bad mood. But incorrect construction work – a process that can represent direct danger to the life and health of people. Therefore, if you are not sure about your abilities, refer to the team of professionals.
About how to dig meat under the foundation, look in the following video.