The basis of any house is the foundation, for the fill of which should choose the highest quality building materials as possible. One of the components of the foundation components is crushed. It is from his choice that the strength and durability of the future design (at home) depends, in addition, high-quality building materials make it possible to avoid additional considerable expenses, because it does not have to change something and correct during construction. To make the right choice, you need to figure it out in all types of rubble and understand what kind of grade and for what purposes is perfect.
Crushed stone – this is one of the driving fillers for a concrete mix, without which no modern construction of a home or other object is. This building material has many classifications and is endowed with different characteristics and features, which directly depends on the quality of the future building, and the strength of concrete, and the fortress of the foundation. Despite the low cost as for a building material, all the indispensable in the construction of quality are combined in crushed it.
Crushed stone possesses the following features:
- High degree of strength – if compared with all fillers for concrete mix, the most durable of all types of rubble is granite material;
- moisture resistance – rubble at all reacts to moisture;
- Excellent tolerability to temperature differences – frost and heat, as well as resistance to environmental impacts. Crushed stone is able to withstand to three hundred shifts of temperature cycles;
- High adhesion – due to the rough surface and acute-angular form, the adhesion of the material with concrete is significantly enhanced;
- Reducing the precipitation and creep concrete, which minimizes the occurrence of cracks and all sorts of deformations in the constructed building;
- Easy use;
- High performance properties.
In addition, due to the variety of types of rubble, you can always choose the one that suits not only according to specifications, but also in cost.
High-quality crushed stone must be chosen based on the following specifications:
- Beschy is the characteristic of the material flatness. In total, the crushed stone has 4 categories of Beshech: Retoidal, Cuboid, Improved and Normal;
- The degree of strength – the stronger the material, the better. Two types of crushed stone are endowed with the highest strength indicators: granite and gravel;
- Radioity is an important characteristic depending on the field of building material. High-quality crushed stone has a certificate for radioactivity. This indicator does not affect the strength of the material, however, the level of environmentality depends on it;
- Frost resistance – this characteristic indicates the number of seasons that will withstand the foundation from this material. In terms of frost resistance, crushed stone can be divided into steady, unstable and highly resistant;
- The coefficient of seal – the density of rubble ranges from 1.2 to 3 g / cm³. This coefficient depends on the type of origin of the material. Rubble with a high degree of density is universal and has an unlimited scope of application. The density and strength of this building material are indicators directly proportional.
Crushed stone for foundation shall be divided into types of fractions, as well as for purpose.
By nature of origin, this building material is divided into many types, among which should be allocated as:
Each of the above species has its own characteristics, features and purpose, which is a decisive factor when choosing one or another type of material.
Granite crushed stone is a building bulk and grainy material inorganic origin. Grains Cruspin are quite large – from 5 mm and more, which are mined by crushing granite. There is excellent specifications in such a rubble, which makes it popular building materials in various processes. It is a good aggregator for high quality concrete. Most often, it is found a reddish or grayish shade, because it includes mica, field spat and quartz. Granite rubble is the most expensive, as it is withstanding huge loads, has an excellent adhesion with concrete, resistant to temperature differences and endowed with high strength.
This building material is divided into such fractions as:
- 5-10 mm – applied in the production of concrete, concrete, asphalt, as well as in decorative purposes;
- 5-20 mm – this is one of the most sought-after fractions in the manufacture of asphalt and concrete. In addition, it is used when pouring the foundation of a residential building, bridge structures, bridges, as well as decorative purposes;
- 10-20 mm – applied in the production of concrete, concrete, when booking foundations, when pouring structures for the construction of bridges;
- 20-40 mm – with the help of a given fraction, rubbents make swelling of sites, roads, and also make pillows under the foundation base and apply in decorative purposes;
- 25-60 mm – most often used in the construction of railways, a ballast layer is performed. In addition, it is perfect for sinking roads and sites, as well as in decorative projects;
- 70-150 mm – this fraction of granite rubble is indispensable in places with fluid soil and huge loads on dumping platforms;
- 0-0.5 mm is an explosion used as a decorative material during finishing works. In addition, it is suitable for dumbling tracks, playgrounds and sports zones.
Granite rubble mass of advantages and only the only drawback is a high price segment.
Gravel crushed stone is a non-metallic, bulk material, which is obtained by crushing or sieving career (rock) breeds. He is frostable, however, its strength is somewhat lower than that of a granite rubble, but it does not prevent it from applying in many types of construction work. Gravel rubbish divide into two types: sea and river. A huge advantage of gravel is its low level of radioactivity and the ability to absorb radiation, so it is quite popular. Due to the available cost, such a type of rubble is widely used in the construction of residential buildings, roads, in the production of concrete, concrete. This material has an average density, low testicle, which makes it possible to achieve a good shrinkage and tamping in the manufacture of a building mixture, and also has a good water pipe. In addition, the crushed stone is a low percentage of impurities and dust, which does not exceed 0.6.
The material has such fractions as:
- 0-0.5 mm is a gravel dropout that can be used in landscaped works and for the sprinkle;
- 3-10 mm is a small fraction that is widely used to fill the floors and for laying a foundation;
- 5-10 mm is a rather popular fraction that can be used in the production of concrete for the foundation;
- 20-40 mm – this is the average fraction. This type of rubble is needed for the manufacture of concrete under the foundation, as well as for drainage;
- 40-70 mm is a large fraction that is used during road repair works, for drainage, for concreting and strengthening various designs.
Gravel crushed stone is an excellent choice during the bookmark of the foundation of a private residential building.
Limestone (dolomite) crushed stone – this is a solid natural building bulk material, which is obtained by means of mechanical crushing rocks in quarries. Next, the material obtained is carefully sifted and divided into fractions used in various industries. Most often, this crushed stone is found in white, but sometimes light yellow, and gray. The color of the material depends on the presence of impurities in rubble (iron, quartz and clay oxides). This building material has excellent specifications: low level of radioactivity and high strength.
The limestone limestone chopenka is divided into such three classes as:
In addition, due to the unique molecular structure of the limestone rubble, a high degree of frost-resistant. It is even withstanding even record low temperatures. Due to the separation of material for five fractions, it is used in the production of concrete, building mixtures, road surfaces, foundations for garages, storerooms, summer buildings, as well as for mechanical water filtration of industrial tanks.
Secondary cruspat – This type of rubble is obtained by crushing and processing bricks, asphalt, lumps of LSBC and other construction waste, that is, the construction trash turns into a useful material. It is used as a litter for sidewalks, concrete sites and floors, but for the foundation under the building it does not fit, because it is not endowed with all technical specifications.
Slag (cast) rubble is obtained by processing dust or steel-smelting slags. This is quite an inexpensive building material, and since it has a specific composition, it can be used in the production of heat-resistant concrete and mineral wool. As a base, it is suitable for houses with a small area.
The list of main characteristics of rubble also includes its fraction – the size of the stones. The possibility of its use in construction works depends on the rubble fraction.
So, crushed stone is divided into such three basic fractions as:
- Small – belongs to the material of the following dimensions: 3×8, 5×10, 10×20, 5×20 mm;
- Average – crushed stone with dimensions of 20×40, 25×60 mm;
- Large – presented with dimensions of 20×70 and 40×70 mm.
In addition, there are also non-standard sizes of rubbank, but they are not used as a building material, they are used in decorative and landscape work.
Before laying a foundation under the house, a variety of actions preceding a serious process, the so-called preparation. At the same time, it is necessary to comply with all the rules and rules so that in the future it is not to get the windows of window and door frames, the appearance of cracks on the walls and drafts. The pledge of high-quality foundation is a benchmark.
To perform it, it is necessary to use high-quality building materials that possess the following features:
- are not bugged;
- do not lose properties at temperature differences;
- Drainage functions are performed during sealing;
- do not contain combustible impurities.
As a rule, the subftitude (pillow) is performed from the construction mixture, which includes concrete, sand, crushed stone. The thickness of such a pillow can be from 25 cm to 60 cm. The subflink can be sandy, and can be performed from rubble. The sand option is budget and fairly common.
The construction technology of the rubble lining (pillows) should be performed, observing the following actions:
- Trench breaks down, the bottom of which is covered with chubble small fraction or large river sand. Layer should be 10-15 cm;
- Next, goes crushed stone. According to SNiP, we need a compacted crushed stone or a thin layer of concrete, in which cement is at least five percent. The thickness of such a formation is 20-25 cm;
- Crushed stone well and tamped with vibropyl. Need to eliminate all free space. Running the rubble must reach the edge of the trench. It is from this mark that the foundation will begin.
The sand pillow is the best option for people crammed in the funds provided for. Make it using coarse sand. Before the sweeping is necessary, the bottom of the trench is set to rubberoid or geotextile to prevent the sand mixing with the soil. This procedure also has a dense rambling, which can be easily performed by roller. After careful preparation and creation of the pillow, laying the foundation plate.
Buying materials to bookmark the foundation of houses or other construction work, should take into account all the technical characteristics of the rubble and choose it strictly by appointment. For the foundation of the residential building, crushed stone with a fraction of 20-40 mm cuboid brees, and for summer kitchen, gazebo or baths are suitable for a smaller caliber – 5-10 mm, even lime crushed stone is allowed. It is necessary to choose the material given its expectations, material opportunities and advice of the Master.
In addition, the process of building the foundation should be paid attention to the following tips:
- The established requirements should be taken into account regarding the ratio of the rubble fraction to the type of future design;
- prevent any pollution on the crushed stone;
- remember that concrete must fully wrap rubble;
- Mark rubbing should be above the grade of the solution itself.
If there are doubts when choosing a building material or lacks skills and knowledge when pouring the foundation, it is better to contact the specialists and get qualified advice or assistance.
On how to choose the right crushed stone for the foundation, see the following video.