Until recently, all pipelines have to be carefully insulated or burned below the ground freezing level. Such methods were time-consuming, and insulation served short. For the better, the situation has changed with the appearance on the construction market of heat-insulating cylinders for pipes.
What it is?
Thermal insulation cylinders are a heater for water supply and sewer systems, gas pipelines, heating networks and T. D. From the name of the material it is clear that it has a cylindrical shape and performs the function of protecting steel and other metal, polyethylene pipes from freezing. Acts as shells for pipes preventing their heat loss.
Due to the fact that the cylinders are put on the pipe or its plot directly when assembling, it is possible to achieve a more dense fit, and therefore higher heat efficiency indicators.
The material is characterized by universality of application and can be used both in civil and in the household sphere, for open and underground pipelines, as well as systems for which overheated liquid is transported (temperature reaches 600 ° C).
There are several types of cylinders, but all products of this species must meet the following requirements:
- Low thermal conductivity;
- Soundproofing characteristics, if it comes to pipes of large diameter;
- Weatherproofness, if we are talking about systems on the surface of the Earth;
- chemical inertness, resistance to aggressive effects;
- moisture resistance, vapor permeability, frost resistance.
Consider the main varieties.
- Most thermal insulation cylinders are performed from Minvati, mainly stone. Mountain breeds (gabbro and diabases) are used as the basis, as well as additives (carbonate rocks) and binding organic origin. In their production, unscrewing technologies are used, that is, there is a navigation of layers. This ensures the uniformity of the thermal conductivity coefficient over the entire surface of the pipe.
- Another type of cylinders are products from foamed polyethylene. Externally, they are pipes that with one of the parties have a longitudinal cut along the entire length. Standard length – 2000 mm, diameter ranges from 18 to 160 mm. It is the size of the diameter based on the classification of products of this type.
- A completely different view has cylinders From foamed polystyrene. They are half-cylinders called the shell. Each of the halves has a thorns and grooves, when installing halves, there are a bit of displacement, after which the locking mechanism is connected. Overall dimensions of polystyrene insulation: Length – 2000 mm (sometimes products are found 1500 mm long), diameter – from 32 to 530 mm, thickness – in the range of 30-100 mm.
- Cylinders from Polyurethairate (PPU) – an example of a insulation that has the highest technical characteristics. They also have the form of halves of the cylinder, the outer side of which is equipped with paper, foil layer or fiberglass fiber. It provides not only a presentable appearance of products, but also protects the surface of the PPU from the despicable exposure to it, increases the weather resistance. Polyuretheniya “Shell” also has a length of 2000 mm, with a diameter of 32-1220 mm and a thickness of 30-60 mm. The tightness of the compound of halves when mounting is provided by the presence of a fold on each of them and the groove.
- Finally, there are so-called Perlito-cement and ceramic insulation For pipes. They, like coloring and primer compositions, are applied to the surface of the pipe. Such coatings on strong curved surfaces are especially in demand. In addition to heat efficiency, coatings demonstrate good adhesion, moisture resistance and weather resistance, low weight.
Depending on the presence of an outer layer, cylinders are produced without coating and coated. The latter can be an aluminum foil layer, a layer of fiberglass or protective galvanized housings.
Relatively recently appeared another type of coating – OUTSIDE, which is a fiberglass mesh, on which a foil layer is applied.
- In its density, the cylinders correspond to dense mats from stone wool. Specific gravity Products range from 150-200 kg / m3. This provides the necessary stiffness of the material and strength to mechanical effects. It can withstand distributed loads up to 700 kg / m².
- Coefficient of thermal conductivity Simulated thermal conductivity indicators of mineral wool insulation and equal to 0.037-0.046 W / m * to. In addition to thermal insulation qualities, cylinders are characterized by sound insulation properties. The sound absorption coefficient reaches 95 dB (all products, except for polystyrene foam).
- The material does not delay moisture between the surface of the pipe and insulation thanks High vapor permeability (0.25 mg / m² * h * pa). The resulting condensate is outlined outside the insulation, which protects pipes from corrosion and molding due to high humidity.
- Certificate of conformity indicates that water absorption Cylinders should be 1%. The moisture that fell on the surface is not absorbed by the material, and literally settles the drops on its surface. High moisture resistance, in turn, guarantees the stability of the coating to low temperatures. Mineral wool insulation are more exposed to moisture. Any insulation wet, loses its thermal insulation properties. In this regard, when using cylinders from Minvati, it is necessary to take care of a high-quality waterproofing layer. Ruberoid can be cooked over the cylinder, the bitumen mastic is applied or a waterproofing membrane is fixed.
- Another advantage – Foreign safety Cylinders for pipes from mineral wool foamed polyethylene and ppa. The material is considered non-combustible (NG) or has a class G1 (weaklyorny materials), if we are talking about products with aluminum foil. The polystyrene insulation, depending on the species, have a class of indicators from G1 to G4 (weaklyorbishy – strong-horror).
- Cylinders Different atmospheric resistance and resistant to high and low temperatures. For example, the thermal range of operation of mineral wool cylinders is -190 … + 700 ° C, which makes them the optimal option for thermal insulation of heating and chimney pipes. But analogs of foamed polystyrene are not suitable for heating pipes, since the temperature of their use is -110 … + 85 ° C. If you need to use them on pipes, the temperature of which exceeds 85 ° C, they first wound a 3-centimeter layer of mineral wool insulation, and then the “shell” is fixed.
The sizes of cylinders are determined by their diameter. So, the smallest dimensions have products made of foamed polyethylene, the diameter of which starts from 18 mm and ends 160 mm. Mineral wool analogs may also have a small diameter -18 mm. However, the range of internal diameter in such products is wider – the maximum diameter is 1020 mm.
Slightly large sizes are characterized by polystyrene foam and polyurethane foam cylinders. Their minimum inner diameter is 32 mm. The maximum dimensions of the diameter in PPU cylinders are superior to the similar values of polystyrene foam analogues.
Minor sizes are found inside the line of individual manufacturers. In addition, almost all of them (especially Russian trademarks) offer the manufacture of cylinders to order in the size of the customer.
The set of cylinders, in addition to the pipe (or “shells”), includes various elements that allow you to isolate such complex pipes of pipes as the inserts, transitions, knee. For insulation of curves and turns of pipe highways, taps are applied. Thermal insulation places of connecting horizontally and vertically oriented systems allow tees.
For more reliable fixation and tight fit, clamps are used. Regional pipe crimping is provided by applying a plug.
- Enjoy the confidence of buyers and gets good reviews of specialists today products brands KNAUF, URSA, ROCKWOOL, IsOVER. Despite the higher cost compared to the materials of some other brands, these thermal insulators are very in demand. This is due to the fact that the products are fully consistent with the declared specifications, has an attractive appearance of finished products, it has the safety and availability of all components, which ensures simple and operational installation.
- Among domestic manufacturers, the products of which are not inferior in their properties with European analogues, but has a smaller value, allocate “Tekhnonikol”, “Isorok”.
- Leading positions among manufacturers of insulation on pipes from foamed polyethylene occupies company EnergoFlex.
- Among the polystyrene foam cylinders are the products of the brand “YEW”.
How to choose and calculate?
Each type of cylinders has its own scope. In other words, when choosing a particular product, it should first estimate the conditions for its operation.
- So, Mineral wool insulation are considered the most vulnerable – they must be protected from the effects of moisture and environmental factors. However, with proper installation, they demonstrate low thermal conductivity, non-hatching and bioscistance.
- Cylinders from foamed polyethylene will find use for insulation of pipes of small diameter. However, due to their instability to mechanical damage, it is better to use them inside residential buildings.
- Polystyrene foam Cylinders or segments of heat efficient, moisture resistant and durable, but are attractive for rodents and belong to combustible materials subject to fire and supporting combustion. In addition, they have a small thermal range of operation and cannot be used to insulate hot water pipes, systems for which heated liquids circulate.
- Universal and truly reliable is the option from PPU. It is distinguished by a long service life, non-combustible, has a low warming coefficient, provides sound absorption. Polyurethane foam “shells” do not become food or home for rodents.
For joints, you should purchase a construction tape (with internal heat insulation) or a foil tape with an adhesive basis (if work is carried out on the street).
To calculate, it is necessary to take into account the area of the pipe, the conditions of its operation and the material of the manufacture, the thickness of the insulation. It is more convenient to make calculations using special formulas.
Recommendations for use
Regardless of the type of cylinders, it is recommended to comply with the following rules for their operation and installation, which will extend the deadline for the free use of products.
- Thermal insulation and pouring PPU street pipes should be carried out only in dry weather. It is unacceptable to cover with a cylinder of wet pipes, as it will negatively affect the state of the insulation.
- Metal pipes require pre-staining. It is better for this to use primer or powder painting formulations.
What features need to be considered when thermal insulation of pipes in the house, you can learn from the following video.