Harvesting load on the foundation – one of the important design stages. It will make it possible to choose the optimal option of the foundation, taking into account the characteristics of the soil on the site, the planning of the future structure, its features, stores, construction materials and finishing. This will help increase the service life of the building and avoid its deformation.

## Peculiarities

By itself, the load on the foundation differ in the duration of exposure and may be temporary or permanent. Continuous loads include walls, partitions, overlap, roofing. Temporary can be attributed to the furniture, equipment (belong to the long-term load subgroup) and weather conditions – the impact of snow, wind (short-term).

**Before collecting loads, it is necessary to carry out some activities, namely:**

- make a detailed plan of the future building, including all sophisticated in it;
- Decide whether the house is equipped with a basement, and if it is – what should be its depth;
- clearly determine the height of the base and choose the materials that will be used in its manufacture;
- Determine with insulation, waterproofing, wind protection, finishing materials – both internal and outdoor, and with their thickness.

All this will help the most accurately calculate all the loads, which means avoiding the skew, bending, drawdown, wasting, roll or offset of the building. The increase in the life, durability and reliability of the construction is not worth mentioning – it is obvious that all these indicators will only benefit with the right settlement.

In addition, the load calculation will help properly select geometric forms, sole of the foundation and its area.

## What does it depend on?

Load for the foundation is a combination of a number of factors.

**These include:**

- then in which region will be built;
- What is the soil on the selected plot;
- how deep the groundwater is lowered;
- from which materials will be performed elements;
- What is the layout of the future building, how many floors will be in it, what a roof will be.

**It is important to correctly determine the soil at the site of future construction**, Since it has a direct impact on the durability of the foundation, on how the type of supporting structure is better to give preference to the depth of the bookmark. For example, if there is a clay, loamy soil or squeege, then the foundation will need to be laid on the depth to which the soil freezes in winter. If the soil is large or sandy – it is not necessary to do this.

It is possible to correctly determine the type of soil using the SP “Load and Impact” – a document that is necessary when calculating the weight of the structure. It contains detailed information on which loads are experiencing a foundation and how to determine them. Cards in SNiP “Construction Climatology” will also help determine the type of soil. Despite the fact that this document is canceled, it can be very useful in private construction as a material for familiarization.

**In addition to depth, it is important to correctly determine the necessary width of the support structure.** It depends on the type of foundation. The width of the ribbon and columnar foundations is determined based on the width of the walls. The reference part of the slab foundation should go beyond the outer boundaries of the walls for ten centimeters. If the foundation is pile – the cross section is determined by calculation, and its upper part is painted on the basis of which load will be on the foundation and what wall thickness is planned.

In addition, it is necessary to take into account the own weight of the supporting structure, the calculation of which is carried out taking into account the depth of the freezing, the level of groundwater and the presence or absence of the basement.

If the basement is not provided, the foundation sole must be located at least 50 centimeters above groundwater. If the basement is assumed – the base should be located 30-50 centimeters below the floor.

**Also important values have dynamic loads. **This is a subgroup of temporary loads that have an instant or periodic impact on the foundation. All sorts of machines, engines, hammers (for example, stamping) – examples of dynamic loads. They have a satisfied complex impact on both the support structure and the soil under it. If it is assumed that the foundation will experience such loads, they need to be particularly taken into account when calculating.

## How to calculate?

The load on the foundation is determined by the set of loads of all composite elements of the building. To correctly calculate this value, you need to calculate the load of the walls, roof, overlap, the impact of natural factors, for example, snow, fold all this together and compare with the meaning that is considered permissible.

Do not forget about the type of soil, which has a direct impact on the fact that the type of foundation is preferred to which depth to lay it. For example, if on the site is very movable and unevenly compressed soils, you can use the foundation plate.

**In order for the load deficiency to be as accurate as possible, it is necessary to collect the following information:**

- What is the form and size of the future house.
- Which height will be the base, from which materials it is planned to do, what will be the outer finish.
- Data on the outer walls of the building. It is necessary to take into account the height, the area occupied in the walls of the frontones, window and doorways, from which materials they will be folded, what materials will be used in external and interior decoration.
- Partitions inside the building. Determine their length, height, the area that will be occupied by doorways, the material from which partitions will be completed, and how their finish will be carried out. Separately, data on carrier and non-carrying structures are collected.
- Roof. Consider the type of roof, its length, width, height, material of manufacture.
- The arrangement of the insulation – at the overlap of the attic or in the space between the rafters.
- Overlapping the base (floor on the first floor). What type it will be what will have a screed.
- The overlapping between the first and second floors is the same data as the base overlap.
- Overlapping between the second and third floor (if a multi-storey building is planned).
- Overlapping attic.

All this data will help to make an accurate load calculation and determine whether the value obtained is the requirements that GOST presents or not.

A predetermined diagram of the building on which the size of the building itself and all designs will be indicated, will help in the work of calculations. In addition, it is necessary to take into account the share of materials, from which walls, overlaps, partitions and finishing materials are constructed.

**Table will help you, where the value of the mass is given for the materials most commonly used in construction.**

Type of construction | Her weight |

Walls | |

Ceramic or silicate full-year brick 380 mm thick (1.5 pieces) | 684 kg per m2 |

510 mm (2 pcs) | 918 kg per m2 |

640 mm (2.5 pcs) | 1152 kg per m2 |

770 mm (3 pcs) | 1386 kg per m2 |

Ceramic hollow brick. Thickness – 380 mm | 532 kg per m2 |

510 mm | 714 kg per m2 |

640 mm | 896 kg per m2 |

770 mm | 1078 kg per m2 |

Silicate hollow brick. Thickness – 380 mm | 608 kg per m2 |

510 mm | 816 kg per m2 |

640 mm | 1024 kg per m2 |

770 mm | 1232 kg per m2 |

Pine timing 200 mm thick | 104 kg per m2 |

300 mm | 156 kg per m2 |

Frame with insulation 150 mm | 50 kg m2 |

Partitions and interior walls | |

Ceramic and silicate full-year brick. Thickness 120 mm (250 mm) | 216 (450) kg per m2 |

Ceramic hollow brick. Thickness 120 (250) mm | 168 (350) kg per m2 |

Plasterboard. Thickness 80 mm without insulation (with insulation) | 28 (34) kg per m2 |

Overlapping | |

Solid reinforced concrete. Thickness 220 M. Screed – cement-sand (30 mm) | 625 kg per m2 |

Reinforced concrete from hollow plates. Thickness 220 mm, screed – 30 mm | 430 kg per m2 |

Wooden. Height of beams 200 mm. With insulation, the density of which is not more than 100 kg per m3. Outdoor coating – parquet, laminate, linoleum, carpet. | 160 kg per m2 |

Roof | |

Ceramic tile | 120 kg per m2 |

Bituminous tile | 70 kg per m2 |

Metal tile | 60 kg per m2 |

**Next, you need to calculate what load is separately a particular design element.** For example, roofing. Its weight is evenly distributed on the sides of the foundation, which relieves rafters. If the area of the roof projection is divided into the area of the parties to which the load turns out, and multiply by the weight of the materials used, it will be the desired value.

To determine which loads are the walls, you need to multiply their weight of materials and all this is divided into the product of the length and thickness of the foundation.

The load provided by overlaps is calculated based on the area of those opposite sides of the base to which they are based on. It should be borne in mind that the area of overlaps and the area of the building itself should be equal to each other. It also matters here the floors of the building and how the material is made of the floor on the first floor – the overlap of the basement. To calculate the load, the area of each of the ceiling multiplies the weight of the materials used (see. Table) and divided into the area of those parts of the foundation to which the loads turn out to be.

Important importance and loads provided by natural climatic factors – precipitation, wind and etc. As an example – load from snow. Initially, it affects the roof and walls, and through them – on the foundation. To calculate the snow load, you need to determine which area is occupied by snow cover. The value is taken equal to the area of the roof.

This value should be divided into the area of the scene of the base experiencing the load, and multiply by the value of the specific snow load, which is determined by the map.

**You also need to calculate the own load of the foundation. **For this, its volume is taken, multiplied by the density of the materials used in the execution of materials, and is divided into a square meter of the base. To calculate the volume, you need to multiply the depth of the climb to the thickness, which is equal to the width of the walls.

When all the necessary values are calculated, they are summed. The result obtained and will be the desired load on the foundation. At the same time, the permissible value of this value should not be lower than that result in the process of calculations. Otherwise, the likelihood is that the cargo area will not stand the load and the building or the foundation deform.

## Tips

Calculation of the load on the foundation is not easy, but the necessary event. Therefore, you need to carefully calculate all components, check all values. However, in addition to building materials, overlappings, walls, and so on, the load will have all the objects available in the house. This is furniture, and all sorts of equipment, and in the building. People.

Thick all these values are quite problematic, so determining the useful load of the building believe that 180 kg accounts for a square meter. To find out what a beneficial load turns out to be fully the whole building, you need to multiply the total area to this value.

**In addition, each design has such a characteristic as the reliability factor. **For each material, he is his. So, at the metal, this value is 1.05, reinforced concrete and arm-variables have a reliability ratio of 1.2 (if they are manufactured at the factory). If the reinforced concrete is made directly at the construction site, its coefficient is 1.3.

Introduction to the necessary documents, such as the SP “Loads and Impact”, SNIP “Construction climatology” (at least last and canceled) will help as accurately accurately calculate the load on the foundation and get all the necessary information.

**Do not start building without fulfilling calculations.** This is a question not just a prudent and responsible attitude to work, but also the safety of people who will subsequently live in the house. Incorrect implementation of the load calculation or without refusal to conduct them can lead to deformation, destruction and foundation, and the building itself.

About the system for calculating the load on the foundation, see the following video.