The foundation is needed not only for houses and cottages, but also for the surplus buildings to which the sheds are. Such structures are often elevated on a strong foundative basis. With such a supplement, the construction becomes higher and strong. It is worth understanding which foundation is more suitable for the shed and how to install it with your own hands.
Features of choosing the foundation
To date, there are a few species of the foundation foundations. Each of them has its own positive and negative sides. For a shed, you need to select the foundation as carefully as for the main structures on the site.
To stop in one embodiment, it should be based on the characteristics of the soil.
- For a bulk, sandy soil is characterized by one serious problem: after the melting of snow or strong atmospheric precipitation, such a soil is soaked in moisture. It can lead to the fact that he just “floats”. Under these conditions, professionals advise building a monolithic or tape base.
- As for the clay land, then it should be borne in mind that it is susceptible to freezing at a considerable depth. In such conditions, floats are also formed. For such a soil, the pile basis is suitable.
- Negative aspects of the soil and swimming sides of the stranger of the gravel type of soil. In such conditions, it is possible to safely mount a column foundation.
- There is a special rock type of soil. It can be built on it any kind of foundation. Exception are only screw bases.
To pick up the optimal type of foundation, it is important to take into account the relief of the soil, as well as the level of groundwater. To find out all the necessary data about the site, it is worth contacting the specialists. However, it is worth considering that such geological surveys can do quite expensive, so most of the homeowners rely on the experience and tips of the neighbors. There is a way to study the soil to select the optimal foundation. To do this, test screwing screwing pile. In this case, this part is deepened to the ground with a manual way, so that the level of groundwater can be determined, as well as the depth of the carrier layer at the time of the screed.
Before switching to the construction of the foundation under the barn, it is necessary to carefully prepare a plot in the place where the surviving construction will be located.
At this stage, the following works should be carried out:
- It is necessary to pretty looking at the place where the foundation with the barn will stand;
- Remove from the ground all unnecessary: hemp, swirls, dirt, trees, bushes and other similar objects.
After clearing the Earth for each type of foundation, their work is held. For example, a large pit is digging for a monolithic basis, and for a linear foundation it is necessary to prepare a trench. If there is too uneven earth or soil on the site with a big slope, then it will not be so easy to align it. In this case, experts recommend to establish the foundation designs on piles.
Subtleties of manufacturing
The foundation foundation under the shed can be made with your own hands. You should consider more than several simple instructions with a step-by-step description of the installation of the foundations for this superior building.
Screw bases are erected as follows:
- First, around the perimeter of the walls you need to set markup for screw piles;
- Then you need to dig out the small excavations, between them should be left about 1.5-2 m; In the prepared pits it is necessary to put piles that must be located in the corners; If there are internal partitions in the design, the piles must be fixed along the line of their erection.
- If the plans to sit in the barn the floor from the boards, then the piles must be put under the bars of the lag;
- It is necessary to screw large piles, which have a diameter of more than 100 mm and a length of more than 150 mm, it should be borne in mind that such installation work is carried out by special techniques;
- piles having a more modest dimensions are screwed into the soil with manual way with the use of levers, and it is necessary to ensure that the foundation structures are in a smooth vertical position;
- Fixed piles need to be trimmed in height, it is recommended to use a bubble or laser level;
- In the pipes you need to pour cement composition;
- upstairs must be attached to the piles; In one building, the foundation base is collected by the stewler or a 2-way beam.
To build a similar basis for hospostroy, The following materials may be needed:
- a solution of concrete that will be pouring into a formwork;
- Metal or asbestos pipes with reinforcement, poured with a solution of concrete;
- Blocks made of concrete.
The foundation with pillars under the shed is built in a different way, rather than screw, and includes the following steps:
- To set the supports, you need to divert the recesses, suitable depth, based on the markup compiled before this;
- The gap between the support parts should be left in range from 1.5 to 2 m;
- The depth of the foundation structure for the grid structure should be at least 150 mm below the soil freezing point;
- At the bottom of the pits it is necessary to sprinkle a large rubbank (about 100 mm), in addition, pour out the same amount of sand; These materials should be sealing, and then on top of laying rubberoid;
- Supports should be put in one level, they should be located above the ground by about 150-200 mm;
- on top of the supports you need to put several places of waterproofing;
- Poles need to surround the scene, so that the soil is not washed away.
Tape types of foundation are the most popular because it is inexpensive, easily withstand impressive loads and are universal.
To prepare a similar basis for a barn, follow these steps:
- around the perimeter of the surveillance construction rose a trench having a depth of 200-300 mm below the level of primerization of the soil;
- The trench width indicator is depending on the size of the base, the free space for mounting formwork should be highlighted;
- It is necessary to equip a pillow of rubble with a thickness of 100 mm, and then it is prettier to catch it;
- On the bottom of the trench you need to pour sand and also to ravibly;
- Now it is necessary to prepare a formwork with the upper edge, towering 200-300 mm above the Earth;
- The formwork needs to be strengthened with pins, while the upper extreme part is shot down by transverse bars in increments of 1.5-2 m;
- inside the formwork on the walls you need to put rubberoid or polyethylene;
- It is necessary to carry out reinforcement for which steel bars will be used with a diameter of 8-12 mm; The reinforcement must be put and tie so that the grille with cells is 40-50 mm;
- It is necessary to fill with concrete; To get rid of air bubbles, in concrete you need to stick the reinforcement several times all over the entire surface of the fill;
- Casting concrete with a polyethylene film and to wet it from time to time so that the material does not crack;
- After 28 days, when the concrete is completely freezing, the formwork must be removed and make the inverse swelling of the trench of the earth;
- Two layers of waterproofing should be put on concrete fill.
According to homemade masters, this foundation is pretty simple. His exhibition is not difficult.
From foam blocks
Strong and reliable is the foundation from blocks (foam or slag blocks).
It is mounted in several stages, namely:
- First you need to make the markup of the site and dug trenches of the desired depth;
- The bottom of the trench needs to be aligned and tamper;
- The next step is to arrange a pillow of gravel and sand;
- After that, the blocks can be laid in the trench; To do this, contact the services of special lifting equipment;
- On the side walls, the cement-sand mixture should be applied;
- Each next block row needs to be laid with a slight offset of half the length compared with the previous one;
- in the space separating the ranks, you need to apply a solution from sand and cement;
- Over the Earth, at least 1 series of foam blocks should be laid;
- Upstairs and on the side you need to apply bitumen mastic using the vehicle and the square;
- In completion, you need to make the inverse casting of the trench of the earth.
Reliable and strong is the monolithic base. It can be used almost on any soil. On this basis there will be many years to stand a barn of any area, from very small to large (for example, with dimensions of 6×4 m).
The technology of the construction of this type of foundation includes the following steps:
- Under the entire territory, the fill must be pulled out by a pit, with its depth should be only 0.5 m; After holding the mumbling to the bottom, you need to pour sand (200 mm), in addition, the sand needs to be slightly moistened and tamper;
- A crushed stone is stacked on the sandy layer (a layer of 200 mm) and also tamper;
- On the resulting sandy-gravel pillow lay out the slabs of the overlap and prepare for the fill, the formwork is assembled and reinforcement is made; In this case, the cells in the lattice should be 20×20 m, then the formwork is poured with concrete;
- It is necessary to drive air bubbles from the solution, which should be done with the help of special vibropress;
- On the frozen solution, it is necessary to put a plastic layer;
- Formwork can be removed only in 28 days.
Specialists are recommended Adhere to some tips when creating a base for a barn.
- Economic construction of a large area will require a sectional planning. In this case, the fill of the foundation base is carried out not only at the edges of the construction, but also under it, so that the bottom of the barn does not succeed in time, but just lay on concrete.
- Cement dries entirely on average for 24-28 days, however, the construction of a surplus construction is permissible to start earlier – in a few weeks, when the fill strength is achieved more than half.
- If the columnar design is mounted on the bunching ground, then it should be borne in mind that it should lay the deeper of the freezing of the Earth.
- If you want to save, instead of asbestos and rubberoids, you can use simple automotive tires. Under the conditions of non-empty soil, they do not need to deepen. The cavity of these items should be covered with sand, and then pour cement.
- Do not forget that the base foundation under the shed should be waterproof and drain on mandatory.
- Experts recommend to make the required counting and measurements in advance, as well as prepare all the necessary deepening on the site. And also need to decide on the number of foundation post. Otherwise you can encounter serious problems. For example, in the midst of the work it may be found out that in the ground there are immaculate butt nodes.
- Screw piles can be done a little longer, if necessary. For this, ends at the top are complemented by carvings and grooves.
- It must be remembered that it does not affect the piles, because their outer surfaces are processed by an anti-corrosion. However, the structure at the same time receives underground, the perimeter of which must be closed with decorative material, for example, siding, tile or professional flooring. So that the underground is ventilated, the driving station is equipped with ventilation products.
- Shed need to be built immediately after the completion of the foundation associated with the foundation. Otherwise, the soil is broken, which occurs in the spring, can slide the poles from the original point.
- For surplus buildings, it is permissible to build combined varieties of foundation grounds, for example, a columnar basis with painter. To make it, you need to pour fine-breeded belt foundation with recesses intended for support parts located in the corners in 2 m.
- Block foundations are made from different types of blocks. Most often there are structures from slag blocks and foam blocks. If it is decided to make the basis of first, then you need to know that such materials have a porous structure that contributes to their rapid destruction under the action of moisture.
- By doing the foundation with your own hands, it is worth a rely on the instructions. Do not neglect any of the stages of work.
- When erecting the foundation under the cozpostroy, you should not allow any errors, as this may affect the reliability of the whole structure as a whole. If there are doubts about their abilities, it is better to turn to professionals, which for a fee will produce high-quality and strong foundation for any supervisory housekeeping.
About what to choose and how to make a foundation for a barn, look in the following video.