Construction of your home – a complex and painstaking process, in which the whole family is usually drawn up. It all begins with the choice of place and drawing the drawing, and ends with the installation of the formwork around the foundation. It is the last step that causes novice builders a lot of questions. Before you begin to it, it is necessary to determine the material and view of the scene, and after studying step-by-step instructions for the manufacture of this element.
What is it and why need?
The formwork (scene) around the building is a wide strip passing throughout the perimeter of the foundation. It performs several functions at once.
- Excludes moisture from entering the foundation. Many consider the installation of formwork with stupidity and excessive waste, but, missing this step, the builder will spend a large amount to replace the foundation. The fact is that at the beginning of the spring and in the middle of autumn as a result of abundant rains, the design will begin to be blurred, so that after some time it will not remain anything from the foundation.
- Improves the appearance of the building. Agree, the formwork can greatly decorate a gray and a nice house or become a supplement to bright design.
- Enhances the thermal insulation of the house. An additional layer of concrete or other material will never be superfluous. On the contrary, it will help to save on the payment of heating.
- Prevents the vital activity of plants. Their root system is not able to develop without access of oxygen, because of which the plants weaken and do not destroy the foundation of the building.
Therefore, properly made formwork – a guarantee of a long foundation service.
Without it, it is not necessary for almost any construction, with the exception of houses standing on the pile screw foundation. There are certain standards of the GOST, in which the main nuances of the application of the device are indicated: the purpose of use and standard sizes.
The scene is a design that is installed to protect the structure from water flow. The base of the formwork is usually covered by concrete or porcelain tiles to not only protect the soil from entering it water, but also improve the appearance of the building. Another option formwork – use of clinker bricks.
Many indicators affect the sizes of the sizes, and its scheme is compiled depending on the type of soil and the width of the roof projection. This design can be 70 or 100 cm – this is the minimum dimensions from which you want to repel.
In a more loose (draft) soil, the design width should be at least 1.5-2 meters.
If the system of ties in a one-storey building was not melted, the formwork width should go beyond its projection by 30-35 cm. If the house was made for the construction of the house, the formwork width increases: it should go beyond its limits at least 45 cm. The angle of inclination of the scene, according to GOST standards, can vary from 1 to 10%, and for loose soil – from 3 to 10%.
Description of species
There are two main formwork: removable and non-removable.
How easy to guess from the name, Removable formwork is cleaned after construction, while non-removable remains forever and serves as an additional guarantee of the strength of the foundation. The advantages of the removable formwork not so much, but most importantly is its cheapness. This design can be used multiple times, which is especially attractive for commercial organizations that build a large number of buildings and can use the same design of dozens times.
The main requirement for formwork will be Strength sufficient to withstand the pressure of concrete. The inner surface of the shields should be aligned. Metal models are considered the most durable, but they are quite expensive in operation (even despite the fact that they can be rented). Also exist polystyrene formwork. But even such a variety of materials does not make a removable formwork more popular.
The advantages of a non-removable formwork is much larger: it increases the strength of the foundation, improves thermal insulation, speeds up the construction process. Even people can work with her without experience, not experiencing that some problems will arise. The price is somewhat higher than that of the previous version, and depends on which materials are used as the basis.
The most modern of all materials used – Polystyrene. It has a number of significant advantages: easy to install, high quality waterproof and insulates the foundation. The disadvantages include a high price. An even higher value is different formwork from Metal. Used sheets of steel 1-2 mm thick. They differ in strength, versatility. In addition, the device can be further reinforced by reinforcement.
Reinforced concrete dispatch Created from finished plates, at the expense of which you can reduce the consumption of concrete without loss for the quality of construction. The advantages include strength, to minuses – high cost and need to attract special equipment in order to establish the design.
Wooden solesteps remain the most popular view due to low cost, ease of installation and availability of material. Cons: when installing the mounting materials will be required, which increases the cost of construction. You should also not forget that the tree is easy to return to rot.
Therefore, wooden structures advise to apply in the construction of light buildings, the construction of the foundation of which is planned as soon as possible.
However, this is not the whole list of materials. Depending on the desires and opportunities of the builders can be applied slate (smooth) or professional flooring. Such materials are chosen due to their cheapness and accessibility, but they have quite a few minuses. Collect the design of slate and such materials will be very difficult, you will have to seek help to professionals, and this is extra costs. The quality of the resulting carrying structures is quite doubtful, when pouring concrete almost always takes place its leaks. This is an option for an extreme case.
Choosing Materials and Tools
The material is chosen depending on the financial capabilities, based on the size and purpose of the future building.
The poor-quality material will pernicably affect the final end of the construction and on the durability of the whole building, so it is better not to save on the slope.
Also, you will need a number of tools for installing the design, without which the installation is not possible:
- shovel (for the preparation of the trench);
- measuring instruments (roulette, level);
- Master OK;
- putty knife;
- hammer and nails;
- The material that will be used to strengthen the trench (for example, rubble shallow and medium fraction, sand);
- Materials for formwork (cement and boards).
It is also desirable to have a wheelbarrow in the farm: it will greatly facilitate the work on the movement of goods.
How to make it yourself?
Before entering the first stage of construction, It is necessary to decide on the material and type of construction. Only then you can start marking. This creates a projection from the edge of the building, to which 30 cm is added. Focusing on this markup, it is necessary to remove the top layer of the soil (the depth is approximately 25-30 cm).
The bottom of the resulting trench must be carefully Dummy. As the lowest layer, it is desirable to put rubble. The average fraction of rubble (from 40 to 60 mm) is used as the main. His fall asleep, roll up and tamper, after which it is necessary to additionally fall asleep rubble small fractions (from 5 to 15 mm). Thus fill emptiness between the crushed stone particles of a larger fraction. The crushed stone layer is sealing, watering water. Next layer – Sandy. It should also be tamped, watering water.
The second stage of the preparation of the trench – Waterproofing or so-called dividing. It is needed to protect the concrete layer from excess moisture during its ripening. Using either geomembrane or polyethylene film. Its thickness is at least 200 microns. If necessary, make additional thermal insulation. For this, a layer of extruded polystyrene foam is layered on top of the film.
The most important stage – Installation of formwork. Most often it is performed from wood. In parallel you need to set the rails to designate temperature seams. Install them at the pre-designed formwork level, given the necessary angle of inclination. The rail width should be 20 mm, and the height is more than a quarter of the formwork thickness.
The method of calculating the distance between the seams is as follows: the thickness of the concrete layer near the base is multiplied by 25. It is convenient to combine temperature and technological seams: that is, concrete should be pouring, focusing on the rail. One portion pour between two slats. Near the base, it is necessary to make the temperature seam with a thickness of 4 mm. Most often it is used runner. After that, the future formwork reinforce. The simplest method is the use of road grid.
It is recommended to choose a grid with cells of 10 centimeters and the diameter of the rods that make up at least 4 mm.
Reinforcement – not the last step in this process. After its end, it is proceeded to the fill with cement mortar. The most suitable composition is concrete M300. Save on the quality of concrete is undesirable, because it is precisely the durability of the breakfast depends on it. Recommended proportions for kneading – 3 Sand shares on 1 cement.
It is important that concrete is a bit back, and then you need to cover it with a waterproofing film for two days.
It is necessary that moisture that the concrete needs to give strength, did not have time to evaporate. Otherwise, concrete will begin to crumble and quickly will. 2 weeks after the fill, the rails are removed, and the seams are poured with bitumen mastic.
Consider the main errors when installing formwork.
- Laying formwork without inclination. If the slope is missing, the water that fell on the formwork will not flock down, but the main function of the structure – the protection against moisture.
- Cement pouring without taking temperature seams. Voltage arising in blocks at elevated temperature leads to faults in concrete.
- Creating intervals in formwork. This guarantees the depriction of moisture under the ground, including where the formwork is there. Globe need to build around the perimeter of the building.
- Bad DNA Tamper. If the bottom of the trench is not tumped enough, the soil shrinkage occurs, so that concrete coating begins to collapse.
About how it is right and without excess costs to make a break around the house, look in the following video.