Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

Pouring the monolithic foundation requires a large number of concrete mix, to prepare which is not always done at a time. Construction sites are used for this purpose concrete mixer, but in a private house, not everyone can afford such equipment. In this article we will consider step-by-step instructions for self-filling the foundation for private space.

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

Peculiarities

Cement and auxiliary components are used for the manufacture of concrete (gravel, crumbs, sand). Water helps to improve the fluidity of the solution, and placifators and additives are added to the mixture to protect against severe frosts. The pouring of the liquid mixture into the form (formwork) involves the beginning of irreversible processes in concrete, namely: grasp, hardening.

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

During the first process, the solution turns into a solid state, because water and components interact with each other. But the connection between the components is still not durable enough, and if the load will be operated on the building material, it can collapse, and the reassurance of the mixture will not happen.

The duration of the first process depends on the temperature mode of the environment and the indicators of moisture content in the air (from 4 to 24 hours). The temperature decrease increases the time of setting the concrete mixture.

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

The second workflow is hardening. This procedure is quite prolonged. On the first day, the concrete is hardening accelerated, and in the following days, the speed of solidification decreases.

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

You can fulfill the fill of the foundation with your own hands, but it is necessary to follow certain recommendations:

  • Consistent mixing of concrete mix. If the interval between flooding does not exceed 2 hours in the summer and 4 with cool weather, the seams are not formed, concrete becomes as durable as with a solid fill.
  • With temporary breaks in the work allowed to pour no more than 64 hours. At the same time, the surface must be cleaned of dust and debris, to clean up through the brush, due to this the best adhesion is ensured.

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

If we take into account all the features of the maturation of the concrete mix and observe important rules, then the fill of the foundation of parts does not deliver special hassle. The second layer of concrete is poured, not exceeding the time interval:

  • 2-3 hours in the summer;
  • 4 hours if work is performed in the off-season (spring, autumn);
  • 8 hours when the fill occurs in winter.

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

Performing the fill of the foundation of parts during the liquid phase of setting, cement bonds are not disturbed, and fully solidified, concrete turns into a monolithic stone construction.

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

Schemes

Before filling out the fill of the foundation, read the technology of performing this procedure. There are two of them:

  • block;
  • layered.

During the construction of the bay foundation and the underground channel, the formwork is poured on the soil.

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

In this case, the pouring is performed in compliance with the joints, that is, layers. When building a monolithic foundation, pay attention to the block fill. In this case, the seams are located in perpendicular position to the joints. This Pouring Procedure is suitable if you decide to do the ground floor.

Before starting work, you need to make drawings in the form of a large foundation scheme, which indicates the total area of ​​the foundation, or it is divided into several areas depending on the selected technology.

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

Based on dividing to the sections, 3 variations of the scheme are distinguished:

  • Vertical separation. The base of the foundation is divided into separate sections that are divided by partitions. After 100% pour partitions are removed and poured concrete mixture.
  • Oblique variation of the fill. A complicated method that implies the division of the territory diagonally. To fulfill it requires certain skills, applied in complex superconducting options for foundations.
  • Horizontal partial pouring. The foundation is divided into plots in depth, between which partitions are not put. The height of the application of each layer is determined. Further pouring is carried out according to the diagram and time of introducing a new portion of the mixture.

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

Training

The filling technology under the house requires careful preparation. Before starting construction work, markup is performed. The limits of the future foundation are determined by primary means: reinforcement, rope, pegs, twine. Through a plumbing, 1 angle is determined, after perpendicular to it, the remaining corners are determined. Using the kitchen, you can set 4 angle.

In the angles noted, pegs are driven, between which the rope is tightened and the placement of the axis of the room is determined.

In the same method, you can carry out internal marking, while you need to retreat from the external line by 40 centimeters.

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

When the markup is made, you can proceed to determine the difference in the elevated surfaces on the site. To measure the depth of the foundation, you need to start with the lowest point of the entire territory of future fill. For small-sized private space, the depth of 40 centimeters will fit. After the pit will be ready, you can proceed to its preparation.

Before pouring the foundation on the bottom of the dumped pit, the sand pillow is stacked, which is designed to reduce the load. It is distributed over the entire area of ​​the area with a thickness of at least 15 cm. Sand is poured in layers, each layer is tamped and poured with water. You can use crushed stone as a pillow, but its layer should be less than 2 times. After the bottom of the pit is covered with waterproofing building materials (polyethylene, rubberoid).

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

Now you can start installing formwork and reinforcement. It is necessary for greater strength of the foundation of the room and auxiliary protection against shredding walls of the trench.

The height of the formwork must be greater than the edge of the trench by 30 cm.

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

The installed fittings should not touch the Earth, otherwise the rust will appear.

Shields are installed along the edge of the contour and are connected by jumpers made of timber. Such jumpers hold formwork in a vertical position. The lower edge of the BRUSEV should fit tightly to the soil so that the mixture does not flow. From the outdoor side of the shields, they support the backups from the bars, boards, reinforcement rods. But it is first necessary to make sure that the walls of the formwork are located in a vertical position.

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

Armature is a large grille with rectangular shape cells (30×40 cm). Join the reinforcement bars need a wire and not welding. The latter option can lead to the appearance of rust in places of compounds. If the foundation is composite, you first need to pour holes for the support columns and insert the 3-4 reinforcement rods that are connected with each other.

Rods must rise above the bottom of the trenches at least 30 centimeters.

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

How to foul?

By purchasing concrete, pay attention to the products under M-200, M-250, M-300 brands. Basically, the construction of private premises and structures implies that it is quite applied to a small-sized concrete mixer. In it, the concrete mix is ​​acquiring the necessary consistency. Flipped mixture easily distributed in the inner field of formwork, and also thoroughly fills the air gaps.

Experts do not recommend filling the foundation during rain or snow.

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

In some cases, construction is performed in spring or autumn, when short-term precipitation falls. For this period, formwork is covered with special material.

Before breeding, it is necessary to calculate the consumption of concrete mixture on the entire area. Since the base consists of several tapes, you first need to find out the volume of each tape, and after folding everything. To calculate the volume, the width of the tape is multiplied by its length and height. The total foundation is equal to the volume of concrete mix.

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

Preparation of concrete solution:

  • sand sifting;
  • Mixing sand, rubble and cement;
  • adding small portions of water;
  • Careful mixing of the ingredients.

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

The finished mixture has a homogeneous structure and color, the consistency should be thick. To check whether kneading is performed correctly, when the shovel is turned over, the mixture should slowly slide from the tool with a common mass, without sharing.

It is necessary to fill the formwork to be layered, distributing the solution around the perimeter, the thickness of which should be about 20 cm.

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

If you immediately pour the whole mixture, then inside air bubbles are formed, which reduces the density of the foundation.

After pouring the first layer, the mixture must be pierced in several places through reinforcement, and after compact with a construction vibrator. Alternatively, the vibrator can use a wooden trimmer. When the surface of the concrete is leveled, you can proceed to the pouring 2 layers. The solution is picked up again, tamper and align. The final layer should be located at the level of stretched rope. The walls of the formwork are tested with a hammer, and the surface is rammed by the Colem.

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

Finishing stage

For 100% of the pouring of the concrete mix, it is necessary for a long time, mainly about 30 days. During this time, concrete is gaining 60-70% of its strength. When the solidification procedure is over, it is necessary to remove the formwork and perform waterproofing by bitumen. Upon completion of waterproofing work, the sinus of the foundation falls asleep earth. On this process of filling the foundation ends, the next procedure will be the construction of walls of the room.

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

How much should the bay foundation be held after infusion, each specialist has its own opinion on this. It is usually considered that the foundation requires 1-1.5 years to gain the necessary properties. But there is an opinion that the brick laying can be carried out immediately after filling.

Some builders recommend building the foundation in the fall, because during this period it will transfer all unfavorable conditions (freezing, rain, temperature fluctuations). The foundation that has transferred such aggressive conditions, in the future nothing threatens.

In any case, it is necessary to observe the deadlines for settling the foundation, and non-compliance with the rules will lead to detrimental consequences.

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

Tips

If you plan to repair an old foundation under the standing home, it is necessary to determine the cause of the foundation. Often problems with the foundation arise due to the fact that the owners choose the method of building a cheaper. Remember, the building requires a reliable support that all components of the structures served a long time.

If this rule was not respected, you will have to correct a mistake. It is necessary to accumulate the foundation so that due to small cracks, the entire building has not collapsed.

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

Consistent work technology:

  • In the center of each crack through the perforator holes (depth 40 cm), in which metal pins are installed. The diameter of the pins should be so that they are tightly entered in micro.
  • Through the hammer, the pins drive into the foundation so that the end of the tool for 2-3 cm remained outside.
  • Performing formwork, poured high quality concrete mixture and leave for full hardening.
  • Perform trench instillation, the most rambling the soil near the foundation.

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

If you decide to replace the old foundation for a new concrete fill under the standing house, you must have specialized tools to raise the building. In this case, a similar fill of the belt foundation is applied.

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

Fundament insulation

If the construction of the foundation is carried out in the autumn period, to protect the solution from low temperatures, it must be insulated. It is not added to the concrete mix, the consistency of the solution is prepared as the same as for the fill in the summer.

For thermal insulation of concrete, various building materials are used:

  • tol;
  • polyethylene film;
  • tarpaulin.

With severe frosts, concrete sprinkled with sawdust, which perfectly perform the protective function from the exposure to frost. But it is also necessary to perform the skate so that melting water does not remain on the building material, and stamped from it.

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

Recommendations for the construction of the Bay Foundation:

  • To prepare a concrete mix, it is recommended to use clean water, and gravel and sand should not contain clay and ground.
  • The manufacture of a high-quality concrete mix is ​​a very important stage, so the ratio of ingredients should have the right proportions, as well as corresponding to 55-65% of the mass of cement mixture.

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

  • The construction of the foundation in the cold season allows the use of warm water to knead the solution. Warm liquid speeds up the hardening process of concrete. If construction is carried out in a summer time, then only cool water is necessary for the knead. Thus, it is possible to avoid accelerated grasp of concrete.
  • After 3 days after the concrete mass is infused, the formwork needs to be removed. Only when concrete will take sufficient strength, you can start building the base.

The construction of the foundation should be paid to special attention and treat it with great responsibility, because a qualitatively completed foundation is a good basis for the future building.

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

Filling of the foundation: Step-by-step manual for construction work

Removing the poor quality foundation – a practically impossible task, and with poor-quality base there are risk of damage to the entire premises.

About how to make the fill of the foundation with your own hands, look in the video below.

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