In the building materials market, silicate brick appeared relatively recently, but has already managed to win a great popularity from our compatriots. Its specifications allow you to build buildings and structures that meet all modern quality criteria. And if we consider the material from the position of the price / quality, then gas-silicate products will confidently take one of the leading places.
What it is?
If we talk as simple as possible, the gas silicate brick is one of the varieties of porous concrete. At the outlet, the material is quite porous, but its strength characteristics fully correspond to the parameters of concrete. The main difference is weight. Gas-silicate blocks are less heavy – the decrease in the parameter is achieved by voids inside.
In the XVIII century, the builders were often added to the concrete blood bull or pigs and received a certain prototype of a modern aerated concmete: when stirring components, the blood protein introduced into a chemical reaction with the rest of the substances, and as a result, a foam appeared, which, when frozen and transformed into a solid building material.
One of the most famous engineers in the Soviet Union. N. In the 30s of the last century, the babies noted that when the plant’s pressing cement was added to the soap root, which grows in the republics of Central Asia, the mixture immediately begins to foam strongly and increase in size. When frozen, the porosity persisted, and the strength increased significantly. However, the Swedish technologist Albert Erickson played the most significant role in the creation of a gas silicate, which created a unique technology for the production of material by adding gas-forming chemical components to cement.
To date, gasilicate bricks are made from cement with the addition of sand and haired lime. Then the mixture is passed through the autoclaves and are subjected to foaming with the addition of special magnesium dust and aluminum powder.
The finished substance is spilled by forms, dried and hardening, which is achieved by two main ways:
- in vivo;
- In the autoclave under the influence of high temperature and strong pressure.
High-quality blocks are obtained when drying the autoclave way. In this case, they become stronger and resistant to external adverse conditions.
Thus, it can be seen that the gas silicate block is a rather uncomplicated composition of inexpensive and universally sold components, so the material is quite profitable for housing construction.
Characteristics and composition
The composition of the gas silicate material includes the following components.
- Portland cement of the highest quality, which is produced in accordance with existing gtales. It includes calcium silicate (its share is at least 50%), as well as tripkalcium aluminum (6%).
- Sand corresponding to regulatory requirements. This brand is characterized by the minimum number of or all kinds of clay inclusions, the content of which should be no more than 2%. Also, the composition includes quartz, approximately 7-8%.
- Technical water.
- Calcium lime, which is called “Kiphel”, to create a porous concrete requires a composition not lower than 3rd varietal categories. The quenching rate of such a component is 10-15 minutes, while the fraction of the face does not exceed 2%. Capper also contains calcium and magnesium oxides, which reaches 65-75% and more.
- Aluminum powder – added for increased gas formation, materials of type PAP-1 and PAP-2 are used.
- Sulfonoll C – component related to surfactants.
The composition and features of the technology determine the properties of the material, among which are noted both positive and negative.
The advantages of gas silicate bricks include the following characteristics.
- Reduced thermal conductivity. In the manufacture of the material, the initial mixture is saturated with a large number of bubbles due to the content of aluminum powder, when frozen, they are converted into the pores, which significantly affects the thermal conductivity. That is, the more pores, the better the material retains heat.
Explain on simple examples. If you live in the northern regions with harsh winters, it is quite enough to hold a wall with a thickness of 50 cm to hold heat inside residential space. Can be more, but, as a rule, the half-meter barrier is enough. In places with a warmer climate, the thickness can be 35-40 cm, in this case, even cool nights in the rooms will persist a favorable microclimate and a cozy atmosphere.
- No less important feature of aerated concrete is good vapor permeability. If the level of humidity in the room above, rather than outside the house, the walls begin to choose an excess moisture from the air and send it to the street. If the situation is reverse, then everything happens with accuracy on the contrary: gasilicate bricks absorb moisture outside and transmit it to the room, this is especially true when the heating is turned on when the air in the heated room becomes too risen.
- For residential buildings has a fundamental value of the fire resistance of the material. The walls of the gas silicate can withstand contact with the flame about 3 hours, as a rule, this time is quite enough to put out the fire, so in the event of a fire, the chances of saving the house is quite large.
- Small weight of bricks also refers to the undoubted advantages of the material. It is easy to transport it, lift to height, in addition, the design does not create a large load on the foundation, and this significantly increases the duration of the home service.
- Gasilicate blocks are released from natural components, so the material is environmentally friendly. It can be used in the construction of children’s preschool and educational institutions, a clinic, residential arrays and other buildings, where the absence of toxic discharge is of fundamental importance.
- Well, a pleasant supplement will be excellent sound insulation, which is possible due to the same porosity of the gas silicate.
To draw up the most complete picture of the properties and characteristics of the material, it will be worth mentioning about its shortcomings.
- Material is quite low resistance to reduced temperatures. Without additional surface treatment, the composition withstands no more than 5 cycles of frost and thawing, after which it begins to lose its strength.
- Gasilicat complicates repair work, for example, in such a material it is impossible to screw the dowel, it starts to fall out immediately, respectively, even hang the shelf in the house with gas-silicate walls becomes a difficult task.
- In addition, the gasilicat does not fit with sand-cement plaster, so it is unrealistic to separate the wall with such material, it will fall off after the most underwent time.
- Pores quite intensively absorb moisture and hold it inside. This leads to gradual destruction of the material from the inside, and also creates a medium favorable for breeding fungi, mold and other bacterial health.
However, with the proper processing of the material, many shortcomings can be leveled, so gasilicat does not lose its popularity among Russians. Yes, and the low price is still becoming a decisive factor when choosing a building material in our difficult time.
Weight and size
One of the main advantages of building materials from aerated concrete is their size, which is much more than all other types of bricks. Due to such dimensions, building buildings occurs much faster. According to some estimates, ahead can be up to 4 times, while the number of joints and compounds is minimally, and this, in turn, significantly reduces all labor costs for the construction and consumption of fixing mortar.
Standard size of gas silicate brick is 600x200x300 mm. Also builders allocate wall half-terminal with parameters 600x100x300 mm.
Different manufacturers can find products with other parameters:
- 500x200x300 mm;
- 600×250х250 mm;
- 600x250x75 mm and t. D.
In construction stores, it is almost always possible to find products exactly the size that is required.
As for the weight, the ratio is obvious here: the greater the size of the brick, the more his mass. So, the standard block weighs 21-29 kg, the differences can be determined by the density of a particular foam block. Weight is one of the basic advantages of the material. So, the weight of 1 m3 of the gas silicate is about 580 kg, and 1 m3 of ordinary red brick – 2048 kg. The difference is obvious.
Areas of use
Depending on the technical parameters of gas silicate brick, largely determined by the scope of its use.
- Blocks density up to 300 kg / m3 are most often used for insulation in wooden houses as the top layer.
- Blocks with a density of up to 400 kg / m3 are designed for mounting bearing walls and partitions with single-storey construction. It can be both residential buildings and household buildings.
- Gas blocks with a density of 500 kg / m3 will be optimal for buildings and facilities in 3 floors.
- For multi-storey construction, blocks are taken with an indicator of 700 kg / m3, while a solid reinforcement of the entire design is required.
The use of gas-silicate blocks reduces the overall level of costs, while the facilities are pretty unpretentious in care and operation. However, it is important that all the technology is fully respected. Any retreat is fraught with the collapse of the building, so the lack of reinforcement or improper use of finishing materials can lead to a big tragedy.
Taking into account the fact that the aerated concrete has a rather democratic price, and its installation requires a minimum of time, you can even build a house without your own hands without the involvement of expensive hired professionals. Therefore, the material is often used to build country buildings, small houses and baths. Let us explain on the example: the house of the blocks is built at least 4 times faster than the house of bricks. In addition, when working with brick, the presence of assistants is required, which will mix the solution and bring bricks, which, by the way, is much larger than blocks (in its size one block is equal to 16 bricks).
Thus, it suggests quite obvious conclusion – the use of gas-silicate blocks is profitable and economically justified, which is why in recent years many developers have made their choice in favor of this material. However, professionals recommend adhere to some recommendations when using aerated concrete.
- When buying, you must personally check all purchased blocks. Various manufacturers allow retreat from guests, so chip, cracks and irregularities of the coating are often found on cheap bricks.
- Upon the construction of 2 or more floors, a mandatory installation of reinforcing support columns is required.
- Overlapping and walls from aerated concrete cannot be left open, they require a mandatory cladding, otherwise the performance characteristics of the material are significantly reduced every year.
- The designs from aerated concrete is strictly forbidden to erect on soils with a weak bearing capacity. During construction, it is necessary to equip the ribbon foundation, it is optimal for work using such materials. Keep in mind that gas-silicate – the material is rather fragile, so with any soil displacement, it begins to crack, so it is important when building a house it is important to correctly calculate all the parameters of the foundation and choose the most resistant brand of concrete.
- When forming the first row of masonry, it is mandatory to make high-quality waterproofing of the base to completely exclude moisture in the wall.
- The required size of gas-silicate blocks should be calculated in advance, the seams are not allowed, since this may lead to a significant weakening of the masonry.
- Blocks with low density can collapse at high pressure, it suggests that before starting construction work it is important to calculate the load on the material and make a detailed plan-project.
About how the gas-silicate block is used in construction, see the following video.