The fallout of rain and melting of snow will be held without consequences only if the stock system is prepared and compliant with all requirements. It not only needs to be created from reliable elements, the quality of installation of individual blocks and their bundle between them. Each household and developer is obliged to take into account all these subtleties during construction, design, overhaul.
Device and purpose
The drainage chute helps not just reset the water stream down (it would be possible to cope with this simple roof slope). His task consists in the direction of water on a certain bed. When the waste system is not configured or disrupted, the flow goes chaotically, the wet walls appear, the foundation of the house appears. The main designs cannot fully fulfill their purpose, quickly fail. Channels for water flow are divided into various types, and the classification can be carried out both by structural material and by the type of system used.
Among the materials that are used in the arrangement of drainage, absolutely leading positions occupy:
- plastic (PVC);
- Steel in the form of tin;
- Alloy steel.
It is these materials for a long time proved their practicality and high efficiency. Used in the past designs of durable wood, concrete or natural stone were irrelevant in their background. Metal channels for removal from the roof and melt water are now claimed more than their polymer fellows. The reason is obvious – it is they allowed to achieve the highest protection of buildings from the flooding of foundations and the ingress of dampness on the walls.
Also the advantages of metal in front of the stiffness and strength plastic are very important for street operating conditions.
The technical characteristics of steel waste grooves allow them:
- serve from 30 years (with high-quality installation and care);
- successfully resist various mechanical impacts;
- Easily endure the action of aggressive and caustic substances.
But with all its advantages, the metal is hard that does not allow it to use it on buildings with lightweight foundations. Copper structures are better than steel by resistance to corrosion, but the load created will be even higher. According to GOST, galvanized material in the form of thin sheets can be used to obtain steel drain pipes, hot and cold steel sheets, low carbon cold rolled strips and steel ribbons.
The geometric configuration of the drainage system also has a certain meaning. So, rectangular drainage:
- It is capable of improving the appearance of the house, fulfilling its function;
- misses much more water than alternative forms;
- requires a relatively small amount of materials;
- surpasses other forms for resistance to ice break.
The only problem is an increased installation fee, against the background of such advantages is not too significant.
Square drainage assembly copes with plenty of precipitation a little worse than a rectangular counterpart. Basically, for the manufacture of such parts, steel with a polymer protective layer is used. At the same time, the total cost turns out the slightly higher than that of traditional round pipes. Radius drains need to be installed mainly on towers and other structures with round roof. In all other cases, they do not need.
Variety of materials
The severity of copper drainage structures is forced, despite their technical advantages, choose a galvanized metal type in most cases. Speaking about the plastic (PVC) option, it is impossible not to note that it is immune to corrosion (like copper), despite much easier. But the emergence of severe noise when hitting the plastic. In addition, if the water in the plastic drain will freeze, she simply break the pipe. To increase water resistance with increased acidity, many firms are caused by polymer coating.
Designs from wood still apply in separate places, because such a building looks very attractive. But it is hardly possible to call it, because wooden waterproofs:
- collapsed in 5-7 years maximum;
- quickly turn fungi;
- cost expensive;
- Available with complicated service.
In high-rise buildings, it is possible to detect concrete gutters, but for private house-building such elements are not suitable. In addition to the considerable mass, the cement block quickly collapsing from water (it does not corrode, but there is no particular difference in practical terms).
Among the primary options, the manufacture of models is occupied From bottles. Special durability and high performance in this way do not achieve. But at least, with its task in the secondary buildings, such a waste system copes successfully.
Calculation of sizes
The cross section (pipe diameter) determines the effectiveness of the use of drainage gutter in a specific situation. So, a large rectangular design is economically ineffective there, where the amount of waste is small. Exact dimensions are determined depending on the effective areas of pitches. To determine them, you must first multiply the gap between the cornese sink and the roof skate on half the total height of the roof. Then the result is multiplied by the length of the roofing slope, measured by midline.
When the total area is 57 kV. m and less, you can limit the chute with a diameter of 10 cm, which will go pipe with a diameter of 7 cm. In cases where the skate varies from 57 to 97 kV. m, the width of the grooves increase to 125 mm. With a further increase in the roof (but not more than 170 m2), it is possible to limit the drainage of 15 cm. Both recent options are equipped with pipes with a cross section of 10 cm. The diameter is 200 mm and is more practiced mainly on very large roofing of apartment buildings.
According to the standp standards, the angle of inclination of the drainage system can be taken from standard reference. The average value suitable for almost all cases is 2 mm per 1 p. M. But there may be a situation where such an indicator is insufficient. It is necessary to specify this when choosing a specific type of roof and method of its organization.
The maximum length is always taken equal to the lengths of the eaves, the amount of drains is calculated for all skates separately.
Stages of mounting
Mounting work can be performed both with professionals and with their own hands. Regardless of this, it is necessary to strictly implement manufacturers.
- If the drain is placed to order, it is advisable to prepare drawings to facilitate installation work.
- Fastening is performed often with hooks. From the selected size of the brackets depends the final success. Holders must be somewhat larger than the chute circumference, but the free movement of the pipe should be excluded.
- Installing the wall connection nodes is made with an interval of a maximum of 900 mm. This requirement is based on the state standard, and it is impossible to shy away from it, whatever the system is not mounted. When the mounting of the fasteners is over, the queue of funnel comes. The alignment of them is determined by the outer or embedded execution of the drain. The roof slope is also taken into account and its total area.
- As follows from standards, on the roof area of up to 10 kV. M. must have the only angular funnel. Upon exceeding this indicator, there are a minimum of two details. When trays are mounted in the center of the system, the plastic or the steel part is cut off, the hole is used for the installation of sings. Necessarily provides for any pipe system fastening plugs corresponding to drain. Installed on the walls of the gutter mainly attach, using pipe locks, the ligaments are treated with sealants.
- Mounting drain on vertical planes need clamps. To note: first the clamp is attached to the wall, and only then create a pipeline section, and not vice versa. In some cases, you will have to install swivel details; It is important to make them because it saves water drain area and increases the efficiency of the entire system as a whole. The final step is the fastening of finishing knees. If it was decided to collect precipitation from the roof, the drainage gutter is complemented by special tanks.
- The fastening of the drainage gutters to the professional foot is made using elements from copper, Steel with zinc coating or plastics. For large roofs, it is recommended to use steel structures. When the construction is small, it is permissible to apply plastics, which is not affected by rust and is relatively inexpensive. Semicircular gutters are made by roller tool because all other methods do not allow to get a flat surface.
Attaching the holders of the brackets is made in such ways as:
- attachment to the crate;
- retention of the lower fraction of the floor;
- pressed to rafters;
- Installation on the frontal roofing board (at the same time from the rest of the roof);
- Installation on the steel pins driven into the wall (when there is no front board); It is implied by the use of studs.
The method is chosen, focusing on the specific situation and the installation conditions.
The drains themselves are fixed by clamps, taking into account the fact that the insulation layer of the rear wall must exceed 50 mm, and the fastener is necessarily started into the wall by 50-60 mm. Little deepening is impractical and unreliable. In any case, it is required to leave the clearance from the pipe to the wall. When PVC is done from PVC, the clamp should not be adjusted close to it – it is worth changing the temperature, the appearance of cracks and a change in dimensions will begin.
The first step under work is to measure the perimeter of the roof on the eaves. Gutter put carefully taking into account the angle of inclination. Vertically oriented parts of the drainage attached from the bottom up. Games need to attach to the lower clamps. Each fragment that is longer than 200 cm must be installed on its special clamp.
It happens that the roof is already laid and the frontal board is not. It does not mean that it will be necessary to disassemble all the roof and reassure the work. The board will have to put very low, connecting the brackets exclusively to the crate. The problem with this solution may be due to the destruction of the design under the snow and ice load. Only to the board itself, it is necessary to mount the drainage by completing the unfinished house and when using a waterproofing film with an anti-condensate effect.
If the repair or construction is still unfinished, you can simply put the boards for the installed coating.
They will help, not migrant material, remove fastenings by passage. This technique ensures the subsequent installation of the gutter even after a long time after the end of the roof work. In another embodiment, the front board is drawn up as an integral part of the roofing ensemble, and the hooks joined it. On metal coatings take relatively short hooks, but from identical material.
Plastic drains are well combined with frontal wood structures. With the complete absence of such structures, equipment “crutches” from metal or wood. Already on these details of the chute attach, using the bars or hairpins. On small utility structures, the hooks simply screw into a straightened. Another solution is the brackets that hold the drainage from top, but at the bottom, and therefore invisible.
If the roof is made of metal tile, approximately the same approaches for fastening drain pipes.
The magnitude of the understatement is selected individually, while it is taken into account, what are the visual properties of the resulting design. The maximum step of installing holders is 90 cm, but it is recommended to limit the 75 cm. The edges of the gutters must be 20-25 mm below the roof edge. The minimum slope of 1 meter of the draft fluid fluctuates in this case from 3 to 5 mm; The smoothness of the slope is ensured by setting brackets strictly at a given height.
On how to install the drain, see below.