The use of basalt insulation for outdoor house insulation is a simple and effective way to increase its efficiency. In addition to thermal insulation, when using this material, it will be possible to increase the noise insulation of the building. Among other technical specifications – fire resistance, environmental friendliness and durability of the insulation.
What it is?
Insulation, made from the finest fibers of mineral origin, are called mineral wool. Depending on the basis of the composition, it has several varieties. The highest heat and sound insulation qualities, as well as environmental friendliness and fire safety demonstrates a stone wool insulation.
Basalt Wat is a type of mineral wool insulation, according to its technical properties, significantly superior to its main types. Basalt insulation consists of molten and stretched fibers. Stirring in chaotic order, they form air, but durable and warm material.
A huge amount of air bubbles are accumulated between the fibers, which provide heat-insulating effect, and also demonstrate the ability to reflect and absorb the sound. The title of the insulation received due to the fact that the fibers of the material are obtained by recycling rock. Stone wool also call “basalt” and “mineral”.
Varieties of basalt insulation can be determined by its density and diameter of the fibers used. Based on density, highlight soft, semi-rigid and hard wool. Wool fiber thickness ranges from 1 μm (microtonne) to 500 microns (coarse fibers).
Material release form – Facade plates manufactured in 2 dimensional variants: 0.5 per 1.0 m and 0.6 per 1.2 m. Thickness is 5-15 cm. The most in demand for the outer insulation of a country house is 10 cm thick. It is less common an analogue in rolls: it is less dense and at the same time prone to deformations.
The material has a wide scope of application. If we talk about the thermal insulation of the outer walls, it is suitable for both “wet” and under the “dry” types of facades.
How to produce?
The progenitor of the modern insulation was the threads found in Hawaii near the volcano after his eruption. Locals found that these light fibers, being folded together, improve the heat efficiency of the housing, are not afraid of water and do not break. Technically, the first basalt cotton can be obtained in 1897 in the US. However, at that time it was produced in open workshops, so the smallest particles of basalt raw materials penetrated the respiratory paths of workers. It almost became a refusal to produce material.
After time, there was a way to other organization of the production process and the protection of employees. Today, basalt wool is made from rocks that are rare in the furnaces up to 1500 s. After that, threads are stretched from molten raw materials. The fibers are then forming, which are impregnated with special compositions to increase the technical properties of the insulation and stacked in chaotic order.
Pros and cons
Stone Wool-based insulation has many positive properties.
- Durability. Long service life (up to 50 years old, according to the manufacturer) allows for a long time to forget about the need to warm the facade. Under compliance with the rules of installation, the operating period can be extended for another 10-15 years.
- Heat efficiency. Porous material structure ensures its high thermal insulation. Its use allows you to maintain a favorable microclimate in the house: warm in the cold season, pleasant coolness in summer heat. Material has a low thermal conductivity, which is 0.032-0.048 W per meter Kelvin. A similar meaning of thermal conductivity have polystyrene foam, cork foamed rubber. Ten centimeters of basalt insulation density 100 kg / m cube. able to replace the brick wall with a thickness of 117-160 cm (depending on the type of brick used) or a tree whose thickness is almost 26 cm.
- High sound insulation. In addition to high heat efficiency, the material has increased soundproofing characteristics. This is also due to the features of the composition and structure of the material.
- Fire resistance. The material is considered non-combustible, since stealingly withstands the temperature rise to 800-1000.
- Parp permeability. Parry permeability of material is provided by condensate. This, in turn, guarantees the safety of the technical properties of the insulation, the absence of high humidity in the room, protection against mold and fungi both inside the building and on the surface of the facade. Parry permeability indicators – 0.3 mg / (m · h · par).
- Chemical inertness, bioscistance. Stone wool is characterized by chemical passivity. When you apply it over metal products, you can be sure that they will not be subjected to the appearance of rust, and mold and fungi will not appear on the surface. In addition, stone fibers are not on the teeth of rodents.
- Easy use. Several options for the size of sheets, as well as the possibility of cutting the material significantly simplifies its installation. Unlike the glass gambler, basalt fibers do not ignore and do not have the ability to penetrate the skin.
- Moisture resistance. Due to this property, the moisture drops are not settled inside the material, but pass through it. In addition, Vata has a special hydrophobic impregnation, so literally pushes moisture. The moisture absorption of the material is at least 2%, which makes it the optimal insulation not only for the facade of the house, but also for the walls of the sauna, baths and other objects characterized by high humidity.
- No deformations. The material is not deformed and does not shrink, which is a guarantee of maintaining technical characteristics throughout the entire period of operation.
- Ecology. Due to the natural content of the composition, the material is non-toxic. However, the buyer should be attentive: sometimes in the composition of basalt insulation manufacturers add slags and additives to reduce material value.
It should be remembered that they are lit at a temperature of 400 s, and material with such additives has the worst performance qualities.
The disadvantage of the insulation can be called high cost. However, if they insulate the facade of the building, in the future you can save on its heating. Like all mineral wool materials, stone wool when cutting and in the installation process, forms the smallest dust, irritating mucous upper respiratory tract. Avoid this allows the use of a protective mask.
Finally, due to high vapor permeability, basalt insulation is not recommended for trim and basement at home.
How to choose?
For the walls of a country house, there is enough basalt wool of medium density (semi-rigid material with a density of at least 80 kg / m3) with a thickness of 8-10 cm. Pay attention to the location of the fibers. Chaotic standby threads provide the best sound and thermal insulation qualities compared to horizontally or vertically oriented fibers.
In order to increase the heat insulating properties, you can purchase a foil analog. From one side, it has a foil, which not only reflects thermal energy, but also has a more reliable hydraulic protection, allows to reduce the thickness of the insulation used. In addition, the foil version of the insulation is suitable for regions with elevated humidity rates for houses located near reservoirs, as well as for brick walls, because it is characterized by improved hydrophobicity.
The last property is especially valuable for the wet facade, since too thick layer of the insulation may not be firmly fixed to the walls, creating an excessive load.
For a frame house, in the walls of which already assumes the presence of a layer of heater, you can use a smaller density wool – 50 kg / m3. For the northern regions, as well as for operation in extreme conditions, it is recommended to use a solid mat from stone wool. It has a wider temperatures of operation.
When buying stone wool, preference should be given to known manufacturers who received a positive assessment of buyers. Among them: Products of the Domestic company Tekhnonikol, as well as products manufactured under the French brand Isover and Finnish trademark Paroc. Pay attention to how the product is stored: it must be in factory package and wrapped in a heat shrink film. Packaging should not have holes and damage. Unacceptable storage of products under the outdoor sun – only under the canopy.
When buying a heater in a cardboard box, make sure that it has not exposed to wet. Dirty divorces on the packaging, different cardboard density – all this may indicate moisture. From purchase should be abandoned, since the probability of the material of its technical properties is high.
Important moment: used for connecting stone wool and foil layer glue reduces fire resistance of the finished product. Avoid this will allow the purchase of firmware basalt materials.
Subtleties of application
Stone wool is usually used for outdoor insulation, which is due not only to high heat efficiency and moisture resistance of the material, but also the ability to avoid reducing the area of the room, which is inevitable when the walls are inevitable from the inside.
For insulation of material from the outside, you should choose a dry warm day. The air temperature should be + 5 … +25 s, the humidity level is not more than 80%. It is desirable that the solar rays do not fall on the treated surface.
Regardless of whether the basalt wool is fixed under the plaster or mounted facade, to properly start laying from the preparatory work.
At this stage, it is necessary to free the facade from cement flies, discovering elements, pins. It is necessary to remove all communication: pipes, wires. Be sure to eliminate the gaps and cracks by means of cement mortar.
After it is possible to achieve the smoothness and smoothness of the surface, you can proceed to the primer of the facade. It should be applied in 2-3 layers, giving dry the previous one before applying the subsequent.
After the primed surfaces are completely dried, proceed to the mounting of the frame. It consists of metal profiles that are attached to the wall with a dowel.
Basalt insulation laying technology depends on the type of facade. If the facade is trimmed by plaster, the plates are attached to a special glue composition. The latter is pre-divorced by water in the proportions indicated on the package, after which it is carefully laid.
The glue is applied to the surface of the insulation, after which the material is tightly pressed against the wall. It is important to install and smooth it up before the glue fully captures the walls of the wall and wool. After the previous product is fixed, the next stove is stacked.
For additional strengthening in the center and on the sides of each plate of the insulation, holes are done in which dowels are inserted. After the cotton is laid and fixed on the surface, it is covered with a thick layer of adhesive composition, and then the reinforcing grid is pressed into it. Laying the latter starts from the corners, for which special reinforcing corners are applied. After the corners are strengthened, about a day, you can fix the grid over the rest of the facade.
Aven a day you can start flying the walls. First, the rough finish is applied, which does not differ in perfect smoothness. However, gradually, layer behind the layer, the facade becomes more even. When organizing the mounted material, with your own hands after installing the frame on the wall, the waterproof film is mounted, and on top of it – layers of stone wool. They do not need to be glued – they are immediately fixed by a dowel.
To protect the insulation from wind and precipitation, windproof membrane applies, it stacked on stone cotton wool. It is important to fix one dowel at once 3 layers: windproof, insulation and hydraulic protection. Stone wool thickness is selected based on the climatic conditions and features of the structure of the structure.
Finish finish under the “wet” facade begins with staining of plastered walls. For this use ground paint. For better clutch with the surface of the walls, the latter is processed by shallow sandpaper. Finishing finish performs 2 functions: protective and decorative. Much distribution received plastered facades performed by the “wet” method. The dry plaster mixture is bred by water and impose on the prepared walls.
Corners, window and doorways and architectural elements are drawn up with the help of good structures. In order to increase the heat efficiency of the structure, they resort to the organization of a ventilated facade, which can be mounted or implemented using building mixtures. A feature of the ventilated facade is the air gap between the trim and insulation.
Most of the mounted facades have such gaps, the general principles of their organization are described above. To organize the “wet” ventilated facade, the insulation after laying is also closed by windproof steam-headed material. The lamp is stuffed to the walls, which locks plasterboard sheets. It is important that the air clearance of 25-30 cm is preserved between the layers of stone wool and plasterboard sheets. Then the surface of the drywall is ground, the joints are carefully close, compared with the rest of the sheet. After drying, the primer is applied to the plaster or paint the surface.
In addition, the facade plastered and painted by the primer composition can be painted using facade paints on an acrylic basis.
Hinged structures involve the use of vinyl siding, porcelain stoneware, plates of artificial or natural stone. They are attached to the frame of the metal profile and are fixed by the dowels. Ensure increased reliability of the mounted facade, its wind resistance and the absence of gaps between individual elements allows the presence of a lock mechanism on panels or plates for finishing.
In the next video you can learn more about the process of insulation of walls at home outside.