The construction of residential buildings from arbite blocks is a modern approach to low-rise construction and is becoming increasingly popular. The material is favorably different from bricks and concrete and bypass them in many operational indicators.
What it is?
Arbolit is a type of lightweight concrete and began to be used in construction for about 60 years ago. In the Soviet Union there were more than 100 enterprises specializing in the production of this qualitative and durable building material. Then the demand of Arbolit has declined somewhat, and until recently, it was not so often used in construction.
Taking into account the latest trends and increased demand for high-quality, warm and quick-scale housing about the arbite blocks, they again remembered, and today The material is considered to be one of the main types of building materials used in low-rise construction.
In order to understand why the material has so many fans, it is worth referring to its composition, from which it can be seen that almost 90% of the total volume occupies a wood chip. For the manufacture of blocks, only selective and pure raw materials are taken: without bans, leaves and other travelers of garbage. The remaining 10% falls on high quality cement, chemical additives and fastening formulations.
Externally, arbolit is represented by square bulk blocks equipped with a special shell consisting of a binder. The structure of the material is rather porous, which contributes to the normal air exchange indoor and maintains the optimal level of humidity. In terms of its operational characteristics, the arbolit is as close as possible to business wood and in many indicators exceeds brick and reinforced concrete.
The scope of the use of blocks from Arbolit is quite extensive.
Material is actively used in the construction of residential buildings and industrial structures. In the buildings, internal and external self-supporting structures are elevated with a height of not more than 7 meters, as well as used for the construction of mounted outer walls.
According to existing standards, arbolite blocks can safely be used to build buildings not higher than two floors. Material is used for the manufacture of wall panels and roofing flooding, as well as noise and thermal insulation structures in the construction of private houses and cottages.
As can be seen from the description, Arbolit can be called confidently by universal building material, that, along with its high strength and wide consumer accessibility makes it truly folk material.
As they do?
Arbolite blocks have very high performance, due to the raw material carefully selected for their manufacture. For example, wood chips, which is the main component of the blocks, has clearly Recommended dimensions that should not exceed 40x10x5 mm.
In general, the choice of filler is determined by the material manufacturing region. In the northern regions, for example, as well as in the middle lane, where there is no problem in the lack of waste woodworking, it is used mainly chips of ate, pines and fir, as well as poplar chips, beech, birch and aspen. In the southern areas as the main raw materials can be used hemp fire, rice straw and cotton stem.
As for additives and fillers, it is added to the composition of the thermal conductivity of the material into the composition, which increase its porosity, and as protection chips from rotting – bactericides and insecticides.
From the chemicals present in the composition of arbolit, calcium chloride, sulfate alumina and limestone should be noted. Due to the presence of these components in the raw materials, it was possible to achieve a noticeable decrease in the water permeability and thermal conductivity of the material. Cement for the production of Arbolita is also taken pretty high-quality.
For example, a brand 500 is used for the production of structural blocks, less often – 400, while for heat-insulating arbium, it is often used by a cheaper option M300.
Mandatory condition for the manufacture of blocks that determine their technical specifications in the future is fast forming. The procedure is performed during the first 15 minutes after the kneading and is carried out on special machines or manually. Mass formation in blocks occurs using vibration technology, which provides high density and durability of the future product.
The ramp of raw materials in the form is carried out in several stages with alternate formation of three layers. The optimal temperature for drying finished blocks is considered 30-40 degrees. Under such conditions, the material will be ready after day. If the air temperature does not exceed 20 degrees, then the complete frost composition will be required from 3 to 5 days.
When lowering the external temperatures below 5 degrees, the solidification of the concrete mixture stops.
The manufacture of arbolite blocks on specialized enterprises is strictly regulated, and the composition is defined by the relevant Goste. In the factory method of manufacture, the deviation in proportions is considered minimal and is usually no more than 2-5%.
Another important indicator that subsequently affect the operational properties of the material is the humidity and temperature of the working solution. Optimal is considered humidity not exceeding 25%, as well as a temperature that should not be below 15 degrees.
Only strict adherence to the formulation of the solution, as well as a clear adherence of the production of arbite blocks can guarantee high performance of the material and its ability to serve many years.
The main technical indicator of arbolite is its thermal conductivity, as well as strength, frost resistance and sound insulation.
- Thermal conductivity Arbolita is rather low and is about 0.07-0.18 W / (m * c). This allows the external wall of the building erected from blocks, keep heat in the same amount, in which it is capable of making brick masonry thick in one meter.
- Strength The arbolite block is also quite high and varies depending on the composition in the range of 21-45 kgf / cm². Approximately the same indicator of strength have foam and aerated concrete, also quite often used in low-rise construction. For example, the M25 brand corresponding to classes of B1.5 and B2 has a compression strength equal to 21-27 kgf / cm², while at the M50 it reaches 45 kg / cm². Thanks to this, blocks are not cracking and well tolerate transportation and warehousing.
- Arbolit is distinguished by increased frost resistance and is able to withstand from 25 to 50 cycles of frost-thawing without loss of its operational properties. This allows homes built from arbium blocks, stand in a cold climate for 50 years and more. In warm areas, the service life increases approximately half and amounts to about 75 years.
- Sound insulation coefficient It is also an important work indicator of the material and determines its use as a noise insulating shield. Soundproofing blocks are ranging from 0.17 to 0.6 units, which is about 4 times more similar brick indicators. To ensure noise absorption, the material is used with a density of at least 500 kg / m³, while the arbolit with an indicator from 550 to 850 kg / m³ takes.
- No less important technical characteristic of the material is its weight. According to this criterion, the arbolit also exceeds a number of other building materials, which makes it more sought after. For example, the weight of one cubometer of masonry from arbolite blocks is about three times less than the same volume of silicate brick and one and a half times – the same volume of ceramzite concrete.
- Non-calamity is also an important feature. Despite the high content in the wood chip material, the arbolit does not burn himself and practically does not support the burning. According to the GOST 12 Regulation.one.0044-89, the arbolit refers to a group of weakly manual (G1), so-flamed (B1) and low-forming (D1) materials.
Arbolite blocks for the construction of outer walls are usually produced in dimensions of 300x250x500 and 500x300x200 mm, and blocks for the construction of internal partitions are made in size 200x250x500 mm.
The high demand for the arbular unit is due to a number of undeniable advantages of this building material.
- The total ecological safety of arbolit is due to the absence of harmful impurities in its composition and poisonous additives. Material mainly consists of natural components, and those present in a small amount of chemical reagents are completely harmless to humans and do not allocate toxic substances into the environment.
- The non-combustible material is due to the appropriate additives, which increases the fire safety of the housing constructed from Arbolit.
- The small weight of Arbolita greatly facilitates the design and reduces the load on the foundation. In addition, universal block sizes make them very convenient during construction and transportation.
- Low thermal conductivity and high heat-saving properties of the material allow you to save on insulating materials and contribute to maintaining a favorable microclimate in the room. In addition, the arbolit is well ventilated, due to which the walls of the building are able to breathe.
- The material is an excellent soundproofer and reliably protects the room from the penetration of foreign noise from the street or adjacent spaces.
- The ability to drive into the arbite wall of a nail or screw the self-sufficiency also distinguished material from other construction analogues.
- Due to the porous structure and high elasticity, arbolite blocks are easily cut and divided into parts. The material does not crack, it does not appear and does not paint.
- Arbolit is not interesting for rodents and insects, and is also not a favorable environment for the appearance of fungus and the formation of mold.
- The surface of the blocks has high adhesive properties and does not need additional measures to improve the adhesion between the decorative coating and the material of the walls of the walls.
- Buildings built from Arbolit, quickly sit down, and the maximum shrinkage at the same time is only 0.4%. This quality allows you to finish internal premises almost immediately after the construction of the walls.
However, along with obvious advantages, the flaws of Arbolit still have. First, it is a high probability of fake blocks. Unfair manufacturers are used as the main filler construction trash, low-quality sawders and even broken glass. This leads to the release of material of disgusting quality, which is subsequently poured into large problems during the operation of the structure.
Secondly, Arbolit has low protection against moisture impact. This, in turn, causes the need to be mandatory wall cladding and applying protective finishes.
The flaws in geometry can be attributed to the disadvantages. In comparison with brick or foam block The deviation from standard sizes is quite large and can reach one and a half centimeters. This causes certain difficulties in construction and requires a careful selection of material and high mastery.
Attention should also be paid to the fairly high price of arbite blocks, which is much higher than the cost of foam block and aerated concrete.
The minuses include The impossibility of using the material for the construction of high-rise buildings, as well as the general instability of the material to the effects of aggressive gases.
During the construction of an arbolic house in the regions with a large amount of precipitation, it is necessary to equip the drainage system, and in the winter months weighing the base of snow. In this regard, the use of arbolite blocks for the construction of walls of basements, eaves and basements is not recommended.
The classification of arbite blocks occurs in several signs, the fundamental of which is the functional purpose of the material.
For this criterion Two varieties of blocks are distinguished: structural and thermal insulation. Category names speak for themselves. For example, the first are characterized by a higher density that can reach 850 kg per cubic meter, and are intended to build external walls of low-rise buildings. Compression strength in such products belongs to high classes of B1.5, B2, B2.5 and B3.5, which corresponds to the brands M25, M35 and M50, including the designs, when designing which ST SEV 1406-78 is not taken into account.
Thermal insulation blocks have an average density – 500 kg / m³ and are used as an additional layer with the arrangement of heat and sound insulation of buildings. Indicators of compression strength of such samples correspond to classes of B0.35, B1 and B0.75, which indicates the brands of M5, M10 and M15 without taking into account ST SEV 1406-78.
The second criterion for classifying blocks from Arbolit is the presence of additional fillers and a protective-decorative layer.
This feature distinguishes three types of material.
- Blocks with facing widely used for the construction of outdoor walls. At the production stage, the front side of the billets are covered with cement-sandy solution, separated by the facade tile or form a coating of granite crumbs. Externally, such an arbolit looks quite solid and beautiful, and the cement layer does not allow moisture to penetrate inside.
- Blocks made of dropout, Further differ from traditional models made using wood chips. In such models, sawdust are subjected to thorough grinding on a special crusher, after which they are sorted from solid mechanical transparency residues and. Such products are characterized by higher operational characteristics and are high demand.
- Construction models also have a protective layer on one side Thickness of at least one and a half centimeters. A cement-lime solution is used as a cladding, which in the process of applying is mixed with the sand of high porosity. Such blocks are used as protective structures that help protect metal elements of construction from corrosion processes.
And the last criterion for which blocks for species occurs, is the geometric shape of products. On this basis, traditional and puzzle models are distinguished. And if with the first everything is extremely clear, then the second are quite an interesting design decision.
Such blocks are equipped with a “groove-comb” fastening, which allows you to quickly build interior partitions from them, collecting them on the principle of children’s designer. The dimensions of such models are somewhat different from the dimensions of traditional rectangular blocks and make up 100x200x500 mm.
How to choose?
The main criterion for choosing an arbium block is to search for a verified manufacturer. The best option will be the acquisition of material from the well-known companies present in the market Building materials for many years and more expensive in their reputation. This is due to the advent of a large number of private industries, most of which violates the manufacturing technology and produces products that do not match the GOST.
According to experts, half of all products entering the market for one or another indicators does not meet the established requirements. Therefore, the purchase of high-quality material will be the key to successful construction and will not bring problems with the operation of the building in the future.
The main thing is to pay attention to when choosing arbium blocks – these are their price.
If the material is suspiciously cheap, it means that its composition has been included inexpensive and, possibly harmful components, so it is not worth acquiring such a product.
Very often unscrupulous manufacturers replace the wood chip of noble woods on low grade sawdust, as a result of which the value of the material is noticeably reduced, and the quality leaves much to be desired.
The second that the buyer should alert – it is Inhomogeneity of the block. He should not consist of several visible layers, Since it subsequently can lead to stratification.
It is also necessary to pay attention to the violation of the geometric shape of products. This usually occurs when producing products on low quality equipment, as well as using different-dimensional chips.
Should pay special attention to the color of blocks. High-quality and fully dried product always has gray. If the material has green or brown shades, then this means that it is not sufficiently dried well at the production stage. In addition, the block should not strike straw, bitch and leaves. From buying such a material it is also better to refuse.
Need to look at Volume volumes – they should not exceed 3%. The unit should look well shot down and not loose.
And last, on which it is also necessary to pay special attention – this is the length of chips. As a rule, it is well visible in the structure of the material, and to determine its average size will not be much labor.
For example, if there is a lot of small elements in the block, this means that the reinforcing quality chips are significantly reduced, and the strength of such a material will be quite low. In order to somehow correct the situation, many manufacturers significantly increase the share of cement, which is why the thermal conductivity coefficient of such a block increases significantly.
How to determine the number of pieces in 1 cube and pallet?
Before you know the number of blocks in the cubic meter and pallet, you need to explain why such information may be needed and what can affect. First, such knowledge is necessary to calculate the optimal cost. Manufacturers in different ways indicate the cost of their products: someone calls the price of one block, and someone – a whole cube or pallet.
Therefore, in order to navigate in prices it was easier, you need to know the exact number of blocks of different sizes in one cubic meter. For example, one cube of products with standard dimensions of 500 × 300 × 200 mm will contain 33.3 pieces, while each of them is 0.5×0.3×0.2 = 0.03 m³.
In the sizes of the block 300x250x500 mm used to erect outdoor walls, one cube will consist of 27 pieces, while in a cubic meter of material used for the construction of internal partitions sizes 200х250х500 mm, there will be 40 pieces.
Secondly, know the exact number of blocks in the cubic meter and the pallet is necessary to calculate the amount of material necessary for construction. As for the number of blocks in the pallet, then With standard sizes 500 × 300 × 200 mm 48 pieces are placed in it.
Judging by the comments of the owners, arbolite blocks are quite convenient in operation and practical in operation. According to experts, the main working quality of Arbolit is that while maintaining almost all operational properties of the tree, it is practically not a fuel, and it is much easier to build from it than chopping a house from a tree.
If you compare with brick, the arbolite structures are much easier and do not require the construction of thick meter walls. In comparison with reinforced concrete, arbolit also wins: hearing in houses from reinforced concrete panels is several times higher than in homes built from arbite blocks.
In addition, many owners note the ability of Arbolit to independently maintain the necessary level of comfort in the room: in the summer in such houses it is not hot, and in winter it is not cold.
Of the minuses, there are high cost of material and the impossibility of its use in the marine and subtropical climate.
About the pros and cons of arbolite blocks, find out in the following video.