All you need to know about bitumen

After reading this article, you can learn everything about the bitumen what it is in practice. It will be possible to understand what is a hot oil bitumen and other species, deal with concrete brands and composition. And it will become clear why you need a bitumen pump, there will be answers and other questions.

What it is?

The overwhelming majority of people know about bitumen mainly that it is used in road construction and waterproofing work, and make oil. But In fact, bitumen is much more interesting than it is at first. So, this is not one product, but a whole group of products that differ in solid or resid-like consistency. Any bitumen does not dissolve in water, but can be fully or partially dissolved in chloroform, benzene and a number of other organic solvents. This name itself goes back to the Latin Word Resin.

The density of bitumens varies widely from 0.95 to 1.5 grams per 1 cubic. cm. Exact properties are determined by the quality of oil involved, primarily the sulfur content and oxidation level.

The overwhelming majority of natural stocks of bitumen have a low concentration and for full-fledged production does not represent interest. And 99% of promising and used bitumen deposits are located in Canada and Venezuela. It is worth noting that this product is not solid, but an amorphous substance, partly manifesting the properties of liquids.

Natural deposits occur in violation of oil deposits, which can happen due to chemical or biochemical oxidation. But the “violator of order” is sometimes also a tectonic process. Basically, bitumens are retrieved from the depths of the earth a career or a mine method. Artificial or technical bitumen is a residue in oil processing, coal or combustible shale. There are no differences in the chemical composition between it and natural products.


For bitumen typical black or dark brown. This is a thermoplastic substance that will be at different temperatures of solid or acquiring a tar-like consistency. If it is strongly warm, melted. But the fluidity even in the molten substance is insignificant. When it cools it, the initial viscosity will return, there is no unambiguous melting point.

Bitumen sometimes, when impaired safety, boils in tank. This happens, if you do not merge from there the remnants of water, and then sue hot (about 120 degrees) product. In such a case, small “resin lakes” appear. Acids and alkali bitumen usually do not dissolve as salt solutions.

The formation of pores is not characteristic of it, and even a thin layer will be completely impenetrable for water.

How much does the bitumen dry and the substances based on it are determined by a number of factors. Play the role and thickness of the layer, and the degree of humidity, and temperature. Volumetric specific weight is equal to 1500 kg, because 1 m3 contains exactly 1.5 tons of substance. The composition of a typical bitumen includes:

  • from 70 to 85% carbon;
  • from 8 to 15% hydrogen;
  • from 1 to 8% sulfur;
  • from 1 to 5% oxygen;
  • no more than 2% nitrogen.

Accurately characterize the chemical composition is very difficult. However, elementary compounds in the bitumen managed to divide on 4 main categories. The solid component is represented by high molecular weight hydrocarbons. Resins are amorphous substances containing sulfur. And also have acids (less than 3%) and oil oils (their number varies from 30 to 60%).



Such a product is obtained by-way in the oil industry in the manufacture of fuel and lubricants. Initially, the truth is obtained, and only when purging hot air or heating produces actually bitumen. Digging in deep vacuum allows you to get such a product based on highly brown oil. Most often these are solid, moderately viscous substances. And also occurs and oxidized bitumen.

This is the same product that is created by purge oxygen of the Hudron and other oil residues. Such residual substances are distinguished by increased viscosity. Cracing bitumens produce, decomposing crude oil and oil at elevated temperature.

There are also compounded products that are produced by mixing residues after the processing of natural oil.

Compounding technology is usually introduced:

  • coal oils;
  • polymers;
  • dages;
  • light oil fractions.


Plasty bitumen is breeds impregnated with liquid mineral resins. Often with these breeds are sandstone or limestone. The surface composition occurs when fluids come to the surface. Bitumen – the one that has a small proportion of mineral inclusions. Get natural products, screwing them in hot water or removing organic solvents from various breeds.

Building bitumen allowed to get mastic, waterproofing and other materials. Roofing product is used in the production of soft roofing products. That mixture that is used for asphalt concrete, stands out in a special group. For convenience, the finished product is supplied in briquettes either in a piece. In some cases, the resinous combination is impregnated with a wavy leaf from organic fibers, and such a product allows you to exclude impact deformations.


Abbreviation BND means “bitumen of oil road” and eloquently characterizes the use of this substance. The figures in the designation of the brand are shown, in what limits may change the penetration in the norm at a temperature of +25 degrees. There are such brands like:

  • BND 200/300;
  • BND 130/200;
  • BND 90/130;
  • BND 60/90;
  • BND 40/60.

Depending on the particular brand they can change:

  • the depth of penetration of the metal needle at 0 and at +25 degrees;
  • The minimum softening temperature over the ring and the ball;
  • the level of extensibility;
  • Temperatures of fragility and flash;
  • Penetration Index.

BN 50/50 – bitumen, characterized by good adhesion. This is easily flowing. On smooth surfaces he will gradually float. BN 70/30 softened at 70-72 degrees. This composition is characterized by excellent adhesion and disintegrate without small debris on large pieces. Such a product is optimally suitable for the arrangement of waterproofing.

BN 90/10 softens at temperatures of about 90 degrees. This bitumen is characterized by excellent adhesion. It is almost insensitive to high temperatures. Such a product can be broken by a hammer. When strikes, fragments are formed having a shiny surface.

Bitumes oil roofing are divided into 3 groups:

  • BNC 40/180;
  • BNA 45/190;
  • BNC 90/130.

Areas of use

It has long been known that bitumen finds widespread use in road construction. For this purpose, both natural and artificial product are used. Road bitumen mixtures have a very high penetrate coefficient. The higher this indicator, the better the suitability for the northern regions. Pumping composition is provided with a bitumen pump.

Use in this quality household or even industrial water pump can not. Specialized execution, designed for high load and complex operating conditions. But bitumen materials are suitable for car noise insulation.

Special vibropromotive structures are sometimes created on the basis of mastic. Some of them can be additionally covered with aluminum foil. Maximum noise protection implies always mechanical sealing materials. As a roof coating, use paper impregnated with bitumen. But such material can be used for packaging various products. It is supplied in rolled format.

Typical roll width – 100 cm. Standard length – 119 m. Bituminous tiles are widely used for finishing facades. Such a tile actively produce a variety of suppliers. It can be attached not only at home, but also on the utility buildings.

In some cases, the bitumen is bought for the insulation of the foundation. Moreover, it can be done both by pouring the liquid composition and by mounting a special panel for the base.

Another option – the use of mastic, except for the main component, including rubber powder. And bitumen is used in the format of the roof of the roof. It is often represented by tiles, similar to the walls used for the design of the walls. But there are also such options as:

  • Ruberoid;
  • uniflex;
  • Pergamine;
  • Bipol.

In the household sphere, more often, bitum is used to flood the roof of the garage and other buildings. Of course, it already requires fireworks, but these are the inevitable costs of the process. More modern option – membrane, including polymer components. How the impregnation for wood is used by a natural or artificial resin, diluted with a diluent (mainly by gasoline).


This indicator may vary widely. But it is calculated separately for each application. In any case, the cost of 1 m2 is determined according to the type of material and the option of using it. Typically, the flow rate is shown on the package (adjusted to the thickness of the layer). So, when applying waterproofing on the foundation, 2 mm layer can be spent 3-3.9 kg of reagent for each “square” (in dry weight).

When covering the roof, the usual cost begins from 0.8 kg. It can reach (in one layer) 1.8 kg. Much depends on:

  • brands;
  • air temperature;
  • Surface preparation.

How to pull?

Solid bitumen must necessarily melt. To increase the efficiency of the molding, it is necessary to prick bitumen into small fragments. These pieces are treated with a diesel fuel or used oil (with a full coating, but without a thick layer on top). A simple household heater of bitumen is usually a fire. Melting is in steel barrel or bucket on weak monotone fire. Otherwise it will occur unevenly.

Melted material leave to warm up until the appearance of foam. Filler – Flusted asbestos, chalk, cement or gypsum. Next, the solvent is valued (in no case, petroleum products cannot be applied).

Discarded bitumen warmer not required. It was originally prepared with the calculation of optimal consistency.

Than you can dilute?

In the event of thickening, diluents will need. In this capacity, low-octane gasoline or safer White Spirit. Mastics are divorced by aviation kerosene, White-spirits or a turpentine, sometimes use solvent and acetone. The choice of the dilution variant is determined by the application method. It determines whether it is necessary to achieve liquid or thick consistency. Bituminous rubber mastics are very elastic. Therefore, they are actively used to protect pipes and other underground communications. Oil components are suitable for a variety of applications, with the exception of roofing works.

They increase the stickiness and reduce the rigidity of the substance. Silver prevents. Guaranteed integrity for a long time. Mastics with the entry of oils are resistant to cold to -50 and to heat up to +80 degrees. The introduction of rubber crumb is a good choice for the formation of durable coatings even on metal roofs. Dissolved composition is often used only as primer.

How to remove from clothes?

Remove from the surface of the fabric bitumen or guestron at home can be a knife or other sharp tool. It is necessary to act carefully that the fabric remains. But it is also necessary to use a special cleaning agent. Acetone and other solvents can not be applied. They, of course, melt pollution, however, and with clothes you have to say goodbye. Special preparations are used to combat receptacles and bitumen stains. For example, Russian “Eltrans” or English Superb DegReaser. It is necessary to work strictly according to the instructions. In any case, it is required to use personal protective equipment and precautions. After cleaning, the problem space must be soaked and dug.

Small pieces and splashes can be washed with diesel fuel or car shampoo. Some independently prepare cleaning mortar. For its cooking use:

  • turpentine;
  • clay;
  • starch;
  • Nasharyar.

Features transportation

Proper shipping bitumen is quite difficult. By rail, it should be transported in capacious bunker containers (collected in groups of 4 pieces). One container accommodates up to 10 tons of substance. Steam coils allow you to support the product in a preheated form. Bitumenoses are usually chased along the highway (specially designed semi-trailers-tanks of the “thermos” type with double walls).

Loading goes at 180 degrees. Bitumen comes and merges gravity. Auxiliary pumps are not needed. With the maintenance of thermal insulation, you can take a bitumen without heating to 48 hours.

Before unloading, the product is heated.

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