In the modern market for construction and finishing materials, it has developed more than tough competition. And this is relevant including for the segment of foamed sheet polymers. Taking into account the fact that basalt plates have all the chances of leadership in their class, many are now interested in all that you need to know about properties, performance indicators and scope of panels. It is worth noting that similar popularity is primarily due to the unique characteristics of the insulation of mineral fiber.
What it is?
Initially, it should be noted that the insulation type in its properties as close as possible to Minvat. In many ways, it determines its prevalence in Russia. To understand what basalt plates are representing, it is worth paying attention to their main advantages and disadvantages. The list of explicit and most significant advantages includes several characteristics.
- Reduced thermal conductivity coefficient due to fibrous structure. Thus, a 10-centimeter cooker in the context of thermal efficiency is comparable to thermal insulators, the thickness of which is up to 30 cm.
- High noise absorption, promoting, along with the previous property, creating the most comfortable microclimate indoors, walls and other structural elements of which are separated by the insulation under consideration.
- Increased resistance to the effects of an aggressive chemical environment. This, in particular, is about acids, alkalis and technical oils. Thanks to this characteristic, the slabs are widely used in the insulation of domain furnaces, different types of technological equipment and pipelines.
- Refractory, allowing to apply the material for almost any operating conditions.
- Strength and long service life, which determine the ability of the insulation to maintain its form over the maximum long period.
- High rates from the point of view of vapor permeability, which directly depend on the compliance with the technology of mounting the sheet heat insulator. With proper laying, an excess moisture with marginal efficiency is discharged outside the room.
- Resistance to the effects of biologically active medium. For example, we can talk about damage to insects and / or rodents.
- Maximum Simplified Plate Mounting Process. The whole complex of work can be performed almost alone, which in itself significantly reduces the financial costs.
Naturally, there are certain cons. First of all, we are talking about the need to strict compliance with the rules provided for by technology. From this, the durability of the insulation and its operational indicators are directly dependent.
Often, over time, gaps can form between individual panels of the insulation. As a result, it is significantly worsened, and most importantly, the insulation of the room.
How to make plates?
The described variety produce from several rocks. The list of raw materials includes basalt, diabases, dolomite, as well as limestone. They are processed at elevated pressure using special equipment. The result of the corresponding processes are thin, but at the same time the most durable fibers that constitute the basis of future insulation slabs. The technological process in this case has the following form:
- Raw materials obtained from volcanic rocks are crushed in crushers and is heated to 1.5 thousand. degrees;
- obtain the “melt” consisting of fibers with a diameter of up to 88 micromitron and 1 cm long;
- An inorganic component is introduced, which provides a solid connection of the fibers and the insulation itself;
- produce high-temperature vacuum pressing plates having a certain density;
- The material obtained is dried in special furnaces at elevated temperature.
Today, companies specializing in the release of basalt plates are offered on the market 4 varieties of products. Taking into account operating conditions, as well as the weight characteristics, you can select the following categories of panels:
- Light – density ranges from 15 to 20 kg / m cubic meter.;
- Average – from 35 to 40 kg / m cubic meter.;
- Plates with a density in the range from 50 to 70 kg / m cube.;
- Heavy – from 150 to 170 kg / m cubic.
It is important to take into account that, regardless of the above parameters, the key properties of the fiber remain unchanged. In other words, in the process of manufacturing plates, only the laying density of the matrix varies.
To date, due to the minimum weight and maximum strength, basalt plates deservedly occupy a special place in their class. For a variety of characteristics, they do not have competitors among modern heat and sound insulators. According to current statistics on their share accounts for about 70% of the market. That is why it is worth paying attention to the main parameters of this insulation, which has been widespread use in construction and other fields.
Heat insulation and sound insulation
As already noted, the structure of the material under consideration is formed by the finest fibers that are chaotic intertwined. As a result, very small cells are formed. It is important to take into account that they contain air, due to which unique thermal insulation properties are ensured. In this case, the material is characterized by minimum thermal conductivity, which fluctuates in the range of 0.032-0.048 W / MK. In other words, the basalt stove with a thickness of no more than 100 mm is capable of providing heat insulation, according to parameters comparable with a similar indicator of a silicate brick wall with a thickness of 140 cm.
Along with the mentioned characteristic described by the characteristics of the structure, the sound insulation component of the mineral wool plate is also determined. So, the insulation with a thickness of 30 to 50 mm is able to absorb up to 500 Hz and even higher. For 125 and 250 Hz absorption coefficient is 0.2 and 0.65, respectively. The same indicator, with an increase in the thickness of the plates, up to 10 cm rises to 0.45 and 0.9.
Parry permeability, hydrophobic properties
Fibers of basalt thermal insulation plates have water-repellent properties. Due to the presence of various additives, manufacturers can significantly improve these hydrophobic performance. It is that The material does not hold steam and moisture, that is, the main characteristics in this case are minimal water absorption (in the range of 1.5%) and increased vapor permeability.
As a result, we can talk about almost instant withdrawal of all excess moisture into the atmosphere. Due to this, the risk of condensation is prevented, as well as the appearance of fungal formations, mold and rot. In practice, the material remains as dry as possible even in conditions of high humidity of the air outside the room.
Such properties allow you to effectively use the plates when finishing saunas and bath.
Non-aggression, fire safety
If the basalt stove fully meets the norms of the GOST, then for it is characteristic:
- increased resistance to high temperatures;
- minimum smoke indicator;
- lack of toxicity of combustion products;
- Non-causing (is refractory) and fire safety.
By the way, at a temperature of 1 thousand degrees, the melting of the material begins only after 2 hours. It is worth considering that there may be samples of insulation that do not comply with current standards.
In addition to the listed, it is necessary to pay attention to the whole list of the important characteristics of the described heat insulator. And in this case, it is about the following competitive advantages providing him with leadership in the relevant segment:
- Environmental purity and safety;
- Increased strength (plates are not deformed under the influence of various factors and retain their form during the entire period of operation);
- Resistance to the negative effects of vibration and deformation;
- Easy mounting.
Attention should be emphasized precisely on the fact that the plates from the basalt do not contain in its composition of substances capable of harming the environment and human health.
Review of species
Taking into account the purpose and performance characteristics, several categories of the insulating material under consideration can be distinguished.
- Soft plates designed for minimum loads and having a porous structure, due to which the most efficient heat insulator.
- Middle Strength Sheets, most often used in the arrangement of the facades of the ventilated type, finishing the air ducts with their protection from the penetration of an open flame during a fire, as well as to create sound insulation.
- Hard plates that are able to withstand substantial loads without any damage to thermal insulation indicators. This type is widely used when performing outdoor work, as well as for insulation of floors and frame partitions.
- Foilized basalt insulation. In this case, the main feature is the ability to partially reflect heat. It is worth noting that the foil may be present both with one and on both sides.
To date, the most common parameters of the insulation plate described are 1200×600 mm. You can now find a panel for sale, the thickness of which varies in the range of 20-120 mm (1200x600x20, 1200x600x50 mm and so on). In addition to the size of the plate, it is also worth taking into account its weight, that is, two key factors affecting the simplicity of installation. With weight a few kilograms of it without help and excessive efforts can be laid even in the most hard-to-reach places.
Taking into account the record popularity of the insulator under consideration and outstanding performance indicators, many well-known companies are engaged in its production. Leading positions in current ratings occupy several brands.
- Knauf – German company, which is considered to be one of the world leaders, including in the field of basalt plates. She started his story in the distant 1932, that is, will soon celebrate the 100th anniversary.
- Rockwool – manufacturer of modern thermal insulators based on basalt, as well as stone wool. One of the explicit competitive advantages of the company is a wide range of products and sizes. Their distinctive parameters are also durability and density.
- Izovol – leading domestic brand in the development and production of heat-insulating panels, including basalt plates. Due to the wide range of products presented in the Russian market, the potential consumer has the ability to choose the most suitable material in each case. And also the list of competitive advantages includes an affordable cost with the optimal value ratio of product quality.
- Isoroc – A large company specializing in the manufacture of a wide list of heat-insulating materials that meet current standards. In the segment of basalt panels offers customers a fairly large selection.
- “TEKHNONIKOL” – manufacturer of described materials that are well-deserved in Russian and other markets. Products are characterized by high quality, durability and increased strength.
When choosing one or another brand of insulation based on basalt, it is strongly recommended to pay special attention to the quality of the material. It is from it that such performance indicators, as the duration of service life and the level of heat and sound insulation.
Areas of use
Being an eco-friendly material, the mineral wool plate is currently widely used in modern high-rise and cottage construction. It is worth noting that the panels are equally effective when finishing both erected and ready-made buildings and structures as part of their repair. Taking into account the refractoriness, the material is successfully used for insulation in the baths of the zones around the stove. In practice, basalt plates are most often used to finish various objects and structural elements. We list the main ones.
- Fencing designs of any configuration.
- Middle cavities in multilayer walls (brick, gas and ceramzite-concrete), as well as in the sandwich panels.
- The facades on which the material is placed on the glue, followed by plastering or applying any other protective layer. Among other things, the plates use when it is necessary to insulate the brusade house.
- Facades of wet and ventilated types.
- Lower and upper layers in multilayer and flat roofs, respectively.
- Cases, partitions and machine units in shipbuilding.
- Chimneys, boilers heating and other boiler equipment.
It can be concluded that with the help of basalt plates, almost any structural elements of structures are successfully insulated – from the foundations to the roof. And panel data found use in different directions of industrial production and energy.
Do not forget about such quality as non-encroaching, which expands the scope of use of plates.